100 research outputs found

    Selection and Estimation for Mixed Graphical Models

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    We consider the problem of estimating the parameters in a pairwise graphical model in which the distribution of each node, conditioned on the others, may have a different parametric form. In particular, we assume that each node's conditional distribution is in the exponential family. We identify restrictions on the parameter space required for the existence of a well-defined joint density, and establish the consistency of the neighbourhood selection approach for graph reconstruction in high dimensions when the true underlying graph is sparse. Motivated by our theoretical results, we investigate the selection of edges between nodes whose conditional distributions take different parametric forms, and show that efficiency can be gained if edge estimates obtained from the regressions of particular nodes are used to reconstruct the graph. These results are illustrated with examples of Gaussian, Bernoulli, Poisson and exponential distributions. Our theoretical findings are corroborated by evidence from simulation studies

    Video Captioning with Guidance of Multimodal Latent Topics

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    The topic diversity of open-domain videos leads to various vocabularies and linguistic expressions in describing video contents, and therefore, makes the video captioning task even more challenging. In this paper, we propose an unified caption framework, M&M TGM, which mines multimodal topics in unsupervised fashion from data and guides the caption decoder with these topics. Compared to pre-defined topics, the mined multimodal topics are more semantically and visually coherent and can reflect the topic distribution of videos better. We formulate the topic-aware caption generation as a multi-task learning problem, in which we add a parallel task, topic prediction, in addition to the caption task. For the topic prediction task, we use the mined topics as the teacher to train a student topic prediction model, which learns to predict the latent topics from multimodal contents of videos. The topic prediction provides intermediate supervision to the learning process. As for the caption task, we propose a novel topic-aware decoder to generate more accurate and detailed video descriptions with the guidance from latent topics. The entire learning procedure is end-to-end and it optimizes both tasks simultaneously. The results from extensive experiments conducted on the MSR-VTT and Youtube2Text datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model. M&M TGM not only outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods on multiple evaluation metrics and on both benchmark datasets, but also achieves better generalization ability.Comment: ACM Multimedia 201

    Distribution-Free Tests of Independence in High Dimensions

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    We consider the testing of mutual independence among all entries in a dd-dimensional random vector based on nn independent observations. We study two families of distribution-free test statistics, which include Kendall's tau and Spearman's rho as important examples. We show that under the null hypothesis the test statistics of these two families converge weakly to Gumbel distributions, and propose tests that control the type I error in the high-dimensional setting where d>nd>n. We further show that the two tests are rate-optimal in terms of power against sparse alternatives, and outperform competitors in simulations, especially when dd is large.Comment: to appear in Biometrik

    Unsupervised Bilingual Lexicon Induction from Mono-lingual Multimodal Data

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    Bilingual lexicon induction, translating words from the source language to the target language, is a long-standing natural language processing task. Recent endeavors prove that it is promising to employ images as pivot to learn the lexicon induction without reliance on parallel corpora. However, these vision-based approaches simply associate words with entire images, which are constrained to translate concrete words and require object-centered images. We humans can understand words better when they are within a sentence with context. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to utilize images and their associated captions to address the limitations of previous approaches. We propose a multi-lingual caption model trained with different mono-lingual multimodal data to map words in different languages into joint spaces. Two types of word representation are induced from the multi-lingual caption model: linguistic features and localized visual features. The linguistic feature is learned from the sentence contexts with visual semantic constraints, which is beneficial to learn translation for words that are less visual-relevant. The localized visual feature is attended to the region in the image that correlates to the word, so that it alleviates the image restriction for salient visual representation. The two types of features are complementary for word translation. Experimental results on multiple language pairs demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, which substantially outperforms previous vision-based approaches without using any parallel sentences or supervision of seed word pairs.Comment: Accepted by AAAI 201