305 research outputs found

    QCD Chiral restoration at finite TT under the Magnetic field: Studies based on the instanton vacuum model

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    We investigate the chiral restoration at finite temperature (T)(T) under the strong external magnetic field B=B0z^\vec{B}=B_{0}\hat{z} of the SU(2) light-flavor QCD matter. We employ the instanton-liquid QCD vacuum configuration accompanied with the linear Schwinger method for inducing the magnetic field. The Harrington-Shepard caloron solution is used to modify the instanton parameters, i.e. the average instanton size (ρˉ)(\bar{\rho}) and inter-instanton distance (Rˉ)(\bar{R}), as functions of TT. In addition, we include the meson-loop corrections (MLC) as the large-NcN_{c} corrections because they are critical for reproducing the universal chiral restoration pattern. We present the numerical results for the constituent-quark mass as well as chiral condensate which signal the spontaneous breakdown of chiral-symmetry (SBχ\chiS), as functions of TT and BB. Besides we find that the changes for the FπF_\pi and mπm_\pi due to the magnetic field is relatively small, in comparison to those caused by the finite TT effect.Comment: 4 pages, 1 table, 6figs. arXiv admin note: significant text overlap with arXiv:1103.605

    Hyperbolic calorons, monopoles, and instantons

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    We construct families of SO(3)-symmetric charge 1 instantons and calorons on the space H^3 x R. We show how the calorons include instantons and hyperbolic monopoles as limiting cases. We show how Euclidean calorons are the flat space limit of this family.Comment: 11 pages, no figures 1 reference added Published version available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k0j4815u54303450

    SU(2) Calorons and Magnetic Monopoles

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    We investigate the self-dual Yang-Mills gauge configurations on R3×S1R^3\times S^1 when the gauge symmetry SU(2) is broken to U(1) by the Wilson loop. We construct the explicit field configuration for a single instanton by the Nahm method and show that an instanton is composed of two self-dual monopoles of opposite magnetic charge. We normalize the moduli space metric of an instanton and study various limits of the field configuration and its moduli space metric.Comment: 17 pages, RevTex, 1 Figur

    ADHM/Nahm Construction of Localized Solitons in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

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    We study the relationship between ADHM/Nahm construction and ``solution generating technique'' of BPS solitons in noncommutative gauge theories. ADHM/Nahm construction and ``solution generating technique'' are the most strong ways to construct exact BPS solitons. Localized solitons are the solitons which are generated by the ``solution generating technique.'' The shift operators which play crucial roles in ``solution generating technique'' naturally appear in ADHM/Nahm construction and we can construct various exact localized solitons including new solitons: localized periodic instantons (=localized calorons) and localized doubly-periodic instantons. Nahm construction also gives rise to BPS fluxons straightforwardly from the appropriate input Nahm data which is expected from the D-brane picture of BPS fluxons. We also show that the Fourier-transformed soliton of the localized caloron in the zero-period limit exactly coincides with the BPS fluxon.Comment: 30 pages, LaTeX, 3 figures; v3: minor changes, references added; v4: references added, version to appear in PR

    Genetic and growth differences in the outcrossings between two clonal strains of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish

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    The populations of the only known self-fertilizing vertebrate Kryptolebias marmoratus (Poey, 1880) (formerly known as Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880; Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae) usually consist of different homozygous lineages; however, heterozygous individuals are found occasionally and ratios of homozygosity and heterozygosity in populations are dependent on the proportion of males. However, it is still unclear what impact male-mediated genetic diversity has on the phenotype of K. marmoratus. To clarify this, we attempted outcrossing between male and hermaphrodite of two different clonal strains with different life-history traits using artificial insemination, and examined the genotypes and growth of the hybrid F2 generation. We detected genetic differences between the two clonal strains using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with 3 primer combinations, and then obtained 11 AFLP markers. From a total of 31 artificial inseminations with two clonal strains, 1 of 13 hatched fish clearly indicated heterozygosity. The hybrid F2 generations were also heterozygous. Moreover, the growths of the hybrid F2 generation were intermediate of the parental strains from days 0 to 30. Therefore, outcrossing changes genetic architecture and the new genotypes potentially result in new phenotypes of the subsequent generations of K. marmoratus. It may also play a role in adaptation to new environments and the facilitation of local adaptation

    QED in a Strong External Magnetic Field: Beyond the Constant Mass Approximation

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    We solve the Schwinger-Dyson equations for QED in 2+1 or 3+1 dimensions in the presence of a strong homogeneous external magnetic field. The magnetic field is assumed strong enough, so that the lowest Landau level approximation holds, but the usual assumption of a momentum-independent self-energy is not made. In 2+1 dimensions, the scaling with logarithm changes to a square root dependence on the magnetic field, but the most spectacular result takes place in 3+1 dimensions, where the constant mass approximation turns out to be unreliable and the (momentum-dependent) dynamical mass is larger by several orders of magnitude compared to what has been found till now using the constant mass approximation.Comment: 21 pages, 8 figures, plain latex, references adde

    Emergence of Skyrme crystal in Gross-Neveu and 't Hooft models at finite density

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    We study two-dimensional, large NN field theoretic models (Gross-Neveu model, 't Hooft model) at finite baryon density near the chiral limit. The same mechanism which leads to massless baryons in these models induces a breakdown of translational invariance at any finite density. In the chiral limit baryonic matter is characterized by a spatially varying chiral angle with a wave number depending only on the density. For small bare quark masses a sine-Gordon kink chain is obtained which may be regarded as simplest realization of the Skyrme crystal for nuclear matter. Characteristic differences between confining and non-confining models are pointed out.Comment: 27 pages, 11 figures, added reference, corrected sig

    Probable antenatal depression at antiretroviral initiation and postpartum viral suppression and engagement in care

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    Objective: To estimate the association of probable antenatal depression with postpartum HIV care engagement among pregnant women in Malawi. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 299 women who were initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) through Option B+ at a government antenatal clinic in Malawi. Methods: Probable antenatal depression was assessed on the day of ART initiation with the validated Chichewa version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We estimated crude and adjusted risk differences (RD, aRD) of visit attendance and prevalence differences (PD, aPD) of viral suppression through 12 months post-ART initiation comparing women with versus without probable antenatal depression. Results: One in 10 women had probable antenatal depression. Most women were engaged in care through 12 months post-ART initiation: 85% attended all scheduled ART visits, and 81% were in care and virally suppressed. Women with and without probable antenatal depression had a comparable probability of attending all scheduled visits (RD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.16 to 0.12; aRD: -0.04; 95% CI -0.18 to 0.10), and of viral suppression (PD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.13; aPD: -0.01; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.15) in crude and adjusted analyses. Conclusion: Probable antenatal depression was not associated with engagement in HIV care through 12 months post-ART initiation. In a population with high HIV care engagement, antenatal depression may not impair HIV-related outcomes
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