1,458 research outputs found

    Six Sigma And Developing Countries

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    Polymer Resonant Waveguide Gratings

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    This chapter deals with the advances in polymeric waveguide gratings for filtering and integrated optics applications. Optical polymer materials are widely used for planar and corrugated micro-optical waveguide grating structures ranging from down a micrometer to several hundred micrometers. Light in a polymeric waveguide is transmitted in discrete modes whose propagation orders depend on incident wavelength, waveguide dimensional parameters, and material properties. Diffracted optical structures are permittivity-modulated microstructures whose micro-relief surface profiles exhibit global/local periodicity. The resonant nature and location of such globally periodic structures (diffraction gratings) excite leaky waveguide modes which couple incident light into reflected/transmitted plane wave diffraction orders. It describes design & analysis, fabrication, and characterization of sub-wavelength polymer grating structures replicated in different polymeric materials (polycarbonate, cyclic olefin copolymer, Ormocomp) by a simple, cost-effective, accurate, and large scale production method. The master stamp (mold) for polymer replication is fabricated with an etchless process with smooth surface profile

    The Relationship between the WES Interventions and the Incidence of Diarrhoea

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    Access to clean drinking water and sanitation facilities have a direct positive impact on health through prevention of water-borne diseases, especially diarrhoeal morbidity of children. Lack of WES (Water and Environmental Sanitation) services and poor hygiene practices in Pakistan contribute significantly to the prevalence of diarrhoea, a major cause of infant death and children less than five years of age. The estimates show that about 30 percent of total deaths among children are attributed to diarrhoeal disease [Gallup (2001); UNICEF (2000)], and 4.1 years in life expectancy can be added if water borne diseases are eliminated [Ali and Haq (2003)]. Hence, reduction of diarrhoeal morbidity stands out as an important policy goal, which can ultimately lead to reduction in infant/child mortality. In this paper, we shall examine the relationship of WES interventions with that of the incidence of diarrhoea among children under age 10.

    WomenÔÇÖs Autonomy and Happiness: The Case of Pakistan

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    It is generally believed that ÔÇťautonomyÔÇŁ brings happiness and satisfaction in womenÔÇÖs lives. In this study we examine whether or not the established autonomy indicators are a source of ÔÇťhappinessÔÇŁ for Pakistani women. By using the nationally representative data, only two indicators, i.e., ÔÇťwomenÔÇÖs educationÔÇŁ and ÔÇťdecisionmaking authorityÔÇŁ, prove to be important factors in finding ÔÇťvery happyÔÇŁ status in womenÔÇÖs life. Additionally, ÔÇťpossession of assetsÔÇŁ also proves to be an important factor in providing the ÔÇťvery happyÔÇŁ status in a womenÔÇÖs life. However, the ÔÇťpossession and utilisation of assetsÔÇŁ and ÔÇťgoing alone outside the houseÔÇŁ are not important indicators of a ÔÇťvery happyÔÇŁ status in womenÔÇÖs life in Pakistan and ÔÇťLabour force participationÔÇŁ is indicative of unhappiness. The results of this study show that not all established indicators of autonomy bring about happiness in the lives of Pakistani women. This is because Pakistani society differs from other societies, in particular the western society, and hence the concept of ÔÇťautonomyÔÇŁ in bringing about ÔÇťhappinessÔÇŁ in the lives of Pakistani women yields effects different from those in other societies. Thus, there is a need to focus on the advocacy of only those autonomy variables which lead to happiness in a womanÔÇÖs life, which is the end-goal for women, who form a vital part of the society.Women

    Leveraging intelligence from network CDR data for interference aware energy consumption minimization

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    Cell densification is being perceived as the panacea for the imminent capacity crunch. However, high aggregated energy consumption and increased inter-cell interference (ICI) caused by densification, remain the two long-standing problems. We propose a novel network orchestration solution for simultaneously minimizing energy consumption and ICI in ultra-dense 5G networks. The proposed solution builds on a big data analysis of over 10 million CDRs from a real network that shows there exists strong spatio-temporal predictability in real network traffic patterns. Leveraging this we develop a novel scheme to pro-actively schedule radio resources and small cell sleep cycles yielding substantial energy savings and reduced ICI, without compromising the users QoS. This scheme is derived by formulating a joint Energy Consumption and ICI minimization problem and solving it through a combination of linear binary integer programming, and progressive analysis based heuristic algorithm. Evaluations using: 1) a HetNet deployment designed for Milan city where big data analytics are used on real CDRs data from the Telecom Italia network to model traffic patterns, 2) NS-3 based Monte-Carlo simulations with synthetic Poisson traffic show that, compared to full frequency reuse and always on approach, in best case, proposed scheme can reduce energy consumption in HetNets to 1/8th while providing same or better Qo

    Analysis of Factors Affecting the Stress Level of Female Engineering Students

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    This paper presents factors that affect the stress level of female engineering students The questionnaire is based on the expectations which the female students have of their institutions as well as from their families Randomly collected data from 200 students is analyzed on software MINITAB 14 Six sigma techniques of Affinity diagram Pareto Analysis SIPOC analysis Cause and Effect matrix and Scatter plots are used It is observed that teachers discouraging attitude to take females on industrial trips and lack of class tests during the academic session are the most critical factors This work can guide the teachers as well as the educational leaders to precisely focus their resources for minimizing stress among female engineering student

    Strategy and Factors Affecting the Supply Chain of Manufacturing Industries in Saudi Arabia

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    Supply chain management is becoming very important in the agile manufacturing industries of nowadays. It is imperative to study the strategy and factors affecting the integration of supply chain management in companyÔÇÖs operating divisions. Forecasting and quality functions should be integrated in supply chains. It is assumed that SCM can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of companyÔÇÖs transformation process. Hence it is important for companies in Saudi Arabia to follow this trend and began implementing SCM to squeeze the excessive fat out of their operations. The paper will start by general introduction with an overview about supply chain management. Then, it will summarize the theoretical background for strategy. In next section method and research methodology will be discussed with analysis of results. Finally, the paper will close with a conclusion Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Strategy, Factors, Manufacturing industries, Lean and Agile Supply Chain

    Replacement of soybean meal with varying inclusions of black soldier fly larvae in albino wistar rats as a model for monogastric animals

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    D├╝nya genelinde g─▒da yetersizli─či ve g─▒da g├╝venli─či dikkate al─▒nd─▒─č─▒nda alternatif yem kaynaklar─▒ pazar─▒n ├Ânde gelen tercihlerindendir. Kara Asker Sine─či ise uygun maliyeti, ekolojik olmas─▒, s├╝rd├╝r├╝lebilirli─či ayr─▒ca i┼č g├╝c├╝ ve arazi ihtiyac─▒n─▒n d├╝┼č├╝k olmas─▒ sebebiyle son derece dikkat ├žeken bir ├╝r├╝nd├╝r. Kara Asker Sine─či larvalar─▒n─▒n getirdi─či kazan─▒mlar hayvan sa─čl─▒─č─▒n─▒n s├╝rd├╝r├╝lebilirli─či a├ž─▒s─▒ndan da bir gereklilik haline gelmi┼čtir. AB, bu ├╝r├╝n├╝n k├╝mes hayvanlar─▒, bal─▒klar, domuzlar, kediler, k├Âpekler, b─▒ld─▒rc─▒nlar, ├Ârdekler, s├╝r├╝ngenler, ku┼člar ve laboratuvar hayvanlar─▒n─▒ beslemek i├žin kullan─▒m─▒na m├╝saade vermi┼čtir. Kara Asker Sine─či larvas─▒, hayvan beslemenin yan─▒ s─▒ra tar─▒mda da kullan─▒larak biyolojik at─▒klar─▒n olu┼čumunu azaltmakta, organik g├╝bre ve biyoyak─▒t ihtiyac─▒n─▒ kar┼č─▒lamaktad─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čman─▒n amac─▒, Wistar albino ratlar─▒n beslenmesinde farkli duzeylerde soya k├╝spesinin yerine kullanilan Kara Asker Sine─či larvalar─▒n─▒n performans, kan parametreleri ve histopatolojik parametrelere etkilerini tespit etmek i├žin yap─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada yar─▒s─▒ di┼či yar─▒s─▒ erkek olmak ├╝zere toplam 80 rat kullan─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. T├╝m ratlar 5 farkl─▒ deney grubuna ayr─▒l─▒p her deney grubu 8 erkek ve 8 di┼či olmak ├╝zere toplam 16 rattan olu┼čmaktad─▒r. Alt gruplar her birinde 2 rat olacak ┼čekilde ayr─▒ kafeslere al─▒nm─▒┼člard─▒r. Ratlar─▒n rasyonundaki soya k├╝spesi, %0 (kontrol), %5, %10, %15 ve %20 oranlar─▒nda Kara Asker Sine─či larvas─▒ unu ile de─či┼čtirilmi┼čtir. Kara Asker Sine─či larvas─▒n─▒n canl─▒ a─č─▒rl─▒k art─▒┼č─▒, ortalama yem t├╝ketimi, hematolojik ve serum biyokimya parametreleri, doku ve serum oksidatif stres parametreleri ve histopatolojik bulgular ara┼čt─▒r─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. ├çal─▒┼čma sonunda t├╝m ratlardan kan ve doku ├Ârnekleri al─▒narak hematoloji ve serum biyokimya parametreleri analiz edildi. Kan ve doku (karaci─čer, b├Âbrek ve kalp) ├Ârneklerinin bir k─▒sm─▒ biyokimya laboratuvar─▒nda serum oksidatif parametrelerinin analizi i├žin -18 ┬░C'de sakland─▒. Karaci─čer, b├Âbrek, kalp, testisler, yumurtal─▒klar, uterus ve duodenum gibi dokular formalin i├žeren steril kavanozlara al─▒nd─▒ ve histopatolojik inceleme i├žin analiz edildi. ├çal─▒┼čmada kullan─▒lan yemler, soya k├╝spesi ve Kara Asker Sine─či larvas─▒ndan al─▒nan ├Ârnekler besin madde profili analizi i├žin T├╝bitak Marmara Ara┼čt─▒rma Merkezi'ne g├Ânderilmi┼čtir. Yem ├Ârnekleri ilgili laboratuvarda kuru madde, ham k├╝l, ham protein, ham ya─č, ham lif, ya─č asidi bile┼čimi ve amino asit bile┼čimi a├ž─▒s─▒ndan analiz edilmi┼čtir. ─░statistiksel analizlerden ├Ânce de─čerler ├╝zerinde normallik testi yap─▒lm─▒┼č, veriler deney gruplar─▒ aras─▒ndaki fark─▒ analiz etmek i├žin IBM SPSS (V. 24.0) program─▒ taraf─▒ndan ger├žekle┼čtirilen ÔÇťTek Y├Ânl├╝ Varyans Analizi (ANOVA)ÔÇŁ ve ÔÇťKruskal Wallis TestiÔÇŁ kullan─▒larak analiz edilmi┼čtir. Korelasyon analizi i├žin ise ÔÇťPearson TestiÔÇŁ uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. ─░statistik sonu├žlar─▒na bak─▒ld─▒─č─▒nda, kontrol grubu ile k─▒yaslanan deney gruplar─▒ i├žin a─č─▒rl─▒k art─▒┼č─▒ ve ortalama yem t├╝ketiminde ├Ânemlilik bulunmam─▒┼čt─▒r (p > 0.05). Ayr─▒ca yap─▒lan analizlerde kontrol grubu ile k─▒yasland─▒─č─▒nda, MCHC, PDW, MPV, P-LCR, ├╝rik asit, ALT, ALP, LDL, HDL, total kolesterol, karaci─čer ve b├Âbrek MDA ve GSH ve doku TOS ve TAS parametrelerinde erkek ve di┼či ratlar da cinsiyet dikkate al─▒nmaks─▒z─▒n beraber de─čerlendirildi─činde ├Ânemli d├╝zeyde farkl─▒l─▒klar g├Âr├╝lm├╝┼čt├╝r (p < 0.05). Bununla beraber cinsiyete ├Âzg├╝ etki olarak MCV, MCHC, PLT, RDW-CV, LDL, HDL, ALP erkek ratlarda, total kolesterol, lenfosit, PDW, PCT, kreatinin, total protein, ALT, kalsiyum, fosfor, OSI, GSH (kalp) ise di┼či ratlarda istatistiksel olarak anlaml─▒ bulunmu┼čtur (p < 0.05). Ayr─▒ca serumda, ├╝rik asit, TOS ve TAS; b├Âbrek ve karaci─čerde MDA ve GSH; ba─č─▒rsaklarda ise villus uzunlu─ču hem erkek hem de di┼či ratlarda ├Ânemli d├╝zeyde farkl─▒l─▒klar olu┼čmu┼čken histopatolojik bulgular a├ž─▒s─▒ndan ├Ânemli farkl─▒l─▒klar g├Âr├╝lmemi┼čtir. Sonu├ž olarak, rasyona soya k├╝spesinin yerine %20'ye kadar Kara Asker Sine─či larvas─▒n─▒n d├óhil edilmesinin, ratlarda olumsuz bir etkisinin olmad─▒─č─▒ tespit edilmi┼čtir. Bununla birlikte kan biyokimya parametreleri, sindirim sistem parametreleri ve oksidatif parametreler a├ž─▒s─▒ndan bak─▒ld─▒─č─▒nda %20'ye kadar Kara Asker Sine─či kullan─▒m─▒ ratlar i├žin tavsiye edilebilir.Regarding universal food and feed security, alternate feed resources are the leading market stance. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) is the most well-reputed because of its cost-effectiveness, ecological, sustainability, and less labor and land intensive. Subsequently, the payback of BSF larvae for health sustainability has become a great necessity. EU has legalized it to feed poultry, fish, pigs, cats, dogs, quails, ducks, reptiles, birds, and laboratory animals. BSF larvae farming helps to reduce organic waste removal and in return it provides animal feeding, organic fertilizer and biodiesel as end products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding varying inclusions of BSF larvae to Wistar albino rats as a replacement to soybean meal on blood chemistry, oxidative biomarkers and tissue histopathology parameters. The number of total rats was 80 in this study. Half of the rats were male, and half of them were female. All rats were divided into five groups; each group contained eight subgroups, of which the first four contained male rats and the following four included female rats. In this way, each group had 16 total rats, 8 male and 8 female, and each subgroup consisted of two rats in one cage. The rats were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% inclusions of BSF larvae meal as replacement to soybean meal. The effect of BSF larvae on body weight gain, average feed intake, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, tissue and serum oxidative stress parameters, and histopathological findings were seen. At the end of the study, the blood and tissue samples were collected from all rats. The blood samples were immediately analysed for hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Some of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and heart) samples were stored at -18 ┬░C for serum oxidative parameters analysis which was performed at the Biochemistry lab. Tissues including liver, kidney, heart, testis, ovaries, uterus and duodenum were collected in sterile jars containing formalin and were analysed for histopathalogical analaysis. The experimental feeds, soybean and BSF larvae samples were sent to the TUBITAK Marmara Research Centre for their nutritional profile analysis. The feed samples were analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, fatty acid and amino acid composition. The statistical analysis showed weight gain and average feed intake to be non-significant (p > 0.05) for all experimental groups compared to control. For statistical analysis, first of all, the normality test of the data was performed by descriptive statistics. On the basis of the normality test, the data was further analysed by One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal Wallis test (KWH) which were performed by IBM SPSS (V. 24.0) to analyse the difference between experimental groups. For Correlational analysis PearsonÔÇÖs test was performed. The statistical analysis showed that MCHC, PDW, MPV, P-LCR, uric acid, ALT, ALP, LDL, HDL, cholesterol total, liver, and kidney MDA and GSH, and tissue TOS and TAS were significant (p < 0.05) compared to the control as the male and female combined effect. However, as a gender-specific effect, MCV, MCHC, PLT, RDW-CV, LDL, non-HDL, ALP and cholesterol total in male rats and lymphocytes, PDW, PCT, creatinine, protein total, ALT, calcium, phosphorous, OSI, GSH (heart) in female rats were statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared to the control. Moreover, uric acid, TOS and TAS in serum, MDA and GSH in kidney and liver, and villus length were significant in both male and female rats and there were not any considerable histopathological changes. Convincingly, up to 20% inclusion of BSF larvae as replacement to soybean meal is effective for feeding rats without causing any negative effect on health and nutrient absorption. An improvement in blood chemistry, intestinal histopathology and oxidative parameters in response to partial inclusion of BSFL up to 20% is recommend for use in lab animals.This thesis was supported by Afyon kocatepe University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit (BAPK) with the project number ÔÇť21. SA─×.BIL.15

    Is Supply Chain Management Important To Implement In Manufacturing Industries of Saudi Arabia?

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    Supply Chain management is becoming very crucial for the survival of world class enterprises. Economic slowdowns are pronouncing major stresses to keep critical products &amp; suppliers moving, manage inventory levels efficiently and maintain productivity. In this paper we intend to emphasize on studying the existing supply chain of Saudi Arabia. SCOR model would be utilized to interpret the problems in SCM and generate alternative solution. Performance measurement methods would be induced to monitor performance, reveal progress, enhance motivation and diagnose problems in Saudi Manufacturing Industries . The paper will start by general introduction with an overview about supply chain management. Then, it will summarize the literature work that has been done so far with advantages of supply chain management. In next section, problem definition and analysis approach will be discussed. Finally, the paper will close with a conclusion Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Performance, Manufacturing indutsry, SCOR, Performance Managemen
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