106,007 research outputs found

    Spatial distribution of HD-EMG improves identification of task and force in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury

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    Background: Recent studies show that spatial distribution of High Density surface EMG maps (HD-EMG) improves the identification of tasks and their corresponding contraction levels. However, in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), some nerves that control muscles are damaged, leaving some muscle parts without an innervation. Therefore, HD-EMG maps in patients with iSCI are affected by the injury and they can be different for every patient. The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial distribution of intensity in HD-EMG recordings to distinguish co-activation patterns for different tasks and effort levels in patients with iSCI. These patterns are evaluated to be used for extraction of motion intention.; Method: HD-EMG was recorded in patients during four isometric tasks of the forearm at three different effort levels. A linear discriminant classifier based on intensity and spatial features of HD-EMG maps of five upper-limb muscles was used to identify the attempted tasks. Task and force identification were evaluated for each patient individually, and the reliability of the identification was tested with respect to muscle fatigue and time interval between training and identification. Results: Three feature sets were analyzed in the identification: 1) intensity of the HD-EMG map, 2) intensity and center of gravity of HD-EMG maps and 3) intensity of a single differential EMG channel (gold standard).; Results show that the combination of intensity and spatial features in classification identifies tasks and effort levels properly (Acc = 98.8 %; S = 92.5 %; P = 93.2 %; SP = 99.4 %) and outperforms significantly the other two feature sets (p < 0.05).; Conclusion: In spite of the limited motor functionality, a specific co-activation pattern for each patient exists for both intensity, and spatial distribution of myoelectric activity. The spatial distribution is less sensitive than intensity to myoelectric changes that occur due to fatigue, and other time-dependent influences.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Quantifying Performance of Bipedal Standing with Multi-channel EMG

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    Spinal cord stimulation has enabled humans with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) to independently stand and recover some lost autonomic function. Quantifying the quality of bipedal standing under spinal stimulation is important for spinal rehabilitation therapies and for new strategies that seek to combine spinal stimulation and rehabilitative robots (such as exoskeletons) in real time feedback. To study the potential for automated electromyography (EMG) analysis in SCI, we evaluated the standing quality of paralyzed patients undergoing electrical spinal cord stimulation using both video and multi-channel surface EMG recordings during spinal stimulation therapy sessions. The quality of standing under different stimulation settings was quantified manually by experienced clinicians. By correlating features of the recorded EMG activity with the expert evaluations, we show that multi-channel EMG recording can provide accurate, fast, and robust estimation for the quality of bipedal standing in spinally stimulated SCI patients. Moreover, our analysis shows that the total number of EMG channels needed to effectively predict standing quality can be reduced while maintaining high estimation accuracy, which provides more flexibility for rehabilitation robotic systems to incorporate EMG recordings

    Force platform recordings in the diagnosis of primary orthostatic tremor

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    Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) consists of rhythmical muscle contractions at a frequency of around 16 Hz, causing discomfort and/or unsteadiness while standing. Diagnosis has hitherto relied on recording Electromyography (EMG) from affected muscles. The main aim of this study was to see if the characteristic postural tremor in OT can be identified with force platforms. We also quantified postural sway in OT patients to assess their degree of objective unsteadiness. Finally, we investigated the time relations between bursts of activity in the various affected muscle groups. Subjects stood on a force platform with concurrent multichannel surface EMG recordings from the lower limbs. Seven patients with clinical and EMG diagnosis of OT were examined and the force platform data compared with those of 21 other neurological patients with postural tremor and eight normal controls. All OT patients had high frequency peaks in power spectra of posturography and EMG recordings (12–16 Hz). No such high frequency activity was evident in patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebellar degenerations, essential tremor or in healthy controls. Additionally, OT patients showed increased sway at low frequencies relative to normal controls, suggesting that the unsteadiness reported by OT patients is at least partly due to increased postural sway. Examination of EMG timing showed fixed patterns of muscle activation when maintaining a quiet stance within but not across OT patients. These data show a high correlation between EMG and posturography and confirm that OT may be diagnosed using short epochs of force platform recordings

    Cross-spectral analysis of physiological tremor and muscle activity. I. Theory and application to unsynchronized EMG

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    We investigate the relationship between the extensor electromyogram (EMG) and tremor time series in physiological hand tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and the effects of observational noise. We calculate the theoretical phase spectrum for a second order linear stochastic process and compare the results to measured tremor data recorded from subjects who did not show a synchronized EMG activity in the corresponding extensor muscle. The results show that physiological tremor is well described by the proposed model and that the measured EMG represents a Newtonian force by which the muscle acts on the hand.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, to appear in Biological Cybernetic

    Theory of the Three-Group Evolutionary Minority Game

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    Based on the adiabatic theory for the evolutionary minority game (EMG) that we proposed earlier[1], we perform a detail analysis of the EMG limited to three groups of agents. We derive a formula for the critical point of the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). Particular to the three-group EMG, the strategy switching in the "extreme" group does not occur at every losing step and is strongly intermittent. This leads to an correction to the critical value of the number of agents at the transition, NcN_c. Our expression for NcN_c is in agreement with the results obtained from our numerical simulations.Comment: 4 pages and 2 figure

    Psychophysiological correlates of peritraumatic dissociative responses in survivors of life-threatening cardiac events

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    The psychophysiological startle response pattern associated with peritraumatic dissociation (DISS) was studied in 103 survivors of a life-threatening cardiac event (mean age 61.0 years, SD 13.95). Mean time period since the cardiac event was 37 (79 IQD) months. All patients underwent a psychodiagnostic evaluation (including the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire) and a psychophysiological startle experience which comprised the delivery of 15 acoustic startle trials. Magnitude and habituation to trials were measured by means of electromyogram (EMG) and skin conductance responses (SCR). Thirty-two (31%) subjects were indexed as patients with a clinically significant level of DISS symptoms. High-level DISS was associated with a higher magnitude of SCR (ANOVA for repeated measures p = 0.017) and EMG (p = 0.055) and an impaired habituation (SCR slope p = 0.064; EMG slope p = 0.005) in comparison to subjects with no or low DISS. In a subgroup analysis, high-level DISS patients with severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 11) in comparison to high-level DISS patients without subsequent PTSD (n = 19) exhibited higher EMG amplitudes during all trials (repeated measures analysis of variance IF = 5.511, p = 0.026). The results demonstrate exaggerated startle responses in SCR and EMG measures - an abnormal defensive response to high-intensity stimuli which indicates a steady state of increased arousal. DISS patients without PTSD exhibited balanced autonomic responses to the startle trials. DISS may, therefore, unfold malignant properties only in combination with persistent physiological hyperarousability. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Within-socket Myoelectric Prediction of Continuous Ankle Kinematics for Control of a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis

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    Objective. Powered robotic prostheses create a need for natural-feeling user interfaces and robust control schemes. Here, we examined the ability of a nonlinear autoregressive model to continuously map the kinematics of a transtibial prosthesis and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded within socket to the future estimates of the prosthetic ankle angle in three transtibial amputees. Approach. Model performance was examined across subjects during level treadmill ambulation as a function of the size of the EMG sampling window and the temporal \u27prediction\u27 interval between the EMG/kinematic input and the model\u27s estimate of future ankle angle to characterize the trade-off between model error, sampling window and prediction interval. Main results. Across subjects, deviations in the estimated ankle angle from the actual movement were robust to variations in the EMG sampling window and increased systematically with prediction interval. For prediction intervals up to 150 ms, the average error in the model estimate of ankle angle across the gait cycle was less than 6°. EMG contributions to the model prediction varied across subjects but were consistently localized to the transitions to/from single to double limb support and captured variations from the typical ankle kinematics during level walking. Significance. The use of an autoregressive modeling approach to continuously predict joint kinematics using natural residual muscle activity provides opportunities for direct (transparent) control of a prosthetic joint by the user. The model\u27s predictive capability could prove particularly useful for overcoming delays in signal processing and actuation of the prosthesis, providing a more biomimetic ankle response
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