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Influence of dietary protein on glomerular filtration before and after bariatric surgery: a cohort study

By Allon N. Friedman, Sara K. Quinney, Margaret Inman, Samer G. Mattar, Zak Shihabi and Sharon Moe

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Obesity-associated elevations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are common and may play a role in the development of kidney disease, so identifying the underlying mechanism is important. We therefore studied whether reductions in dietary protein intake, which is known to modulate GFR, explain why GFR decreases after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study with participants as their own controls. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 8 severely obese patients with normal kidney function were recruited from bariatric surgery centers in Indianapolis, IN. All participants were placed on a fixed-protein (50-g/d) diet for 1 week before and after a minimum of a 20-kg weight loss by bariatric surgery and were followed up closely by dieticians for adherence. PREDICTOR: Ad lib versus low-protein diet before versus after bariatric surgery. OUTCOME: Measured GFR, using repeated-measures analysis, was used to estimate the independent effects of diet and surgery. MEASUREMENT: GFR was measured using plasma iohexol clearance. RESULTS: A median of 32.9 (range, 19.5-54.4)kg was lost between the first presurgery visit and first postsurgery visit. Dietetic evaluations and urinary urea excretion confirmed that patients generally adhered to the study diet. GFRs on an ad lib diet were significantly higher before compared to after surgery (GFR medians were 144 (range, 114-178) and 107 (range, 85-147) mL/min, respectively; P=0.01). Although bariatric surgery (-26mL/min; P=0.005) and dietary sodium intake (+7.5mL/min per 100mg of dietary sodium; P=0.001) both influenced GFR, consuming a low-protein diet did not (P=0.7). LIMITATIONS: Small sample size; mostly white women; possible lack of generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in GFR observed after bariatric surgery is explained at least in part by the effects of surgery and/or dietary sodium intake, but not by low dietary protein consumption

Topics: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Diet, Glomerular hyperfiltration, Kidney, Protein, Renal function, Weight reduction
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2014
DOI identifier: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.11.012
OAI identifier: oai:scholarworks.iupui.edu:1805/8535
Provided by: IUPUIScholarWorks

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