Both S100A14 and S100A16 are members of the multifunctional S100 protein family. Formation of homo/heterodimers is considered to be one of the major mechanisms for S100 proteins to execute their diverse cellular functions. By employing a classical Yeast two hybrid (Y-2 H) screen, we identified S100A16 as the single interaction partner of S100A14. This interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation, double indirect immunofluorescence and double immunostaining in specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa. The functional significance of this interaction was examined by employing retroviral mediated over-expression and knock-down of these proteins in several cancer cell-lines. Over-expression and knock-down of S100A14 led to concomitant up- and down-regulation of S100A16 protein in the cell-lines examined. However, there was no up-regulation of S100A16 mRNA upon S100A14 over-expression, indicating that modulation of S100A16 expression was not due to enhanced transcriptional activity but possibly by post-transcriptional regulation. In contrary, over-expression of S100A16 was associated neither with the up-regulation of S100A14 mRNA nor its protein, suggesting a unidirectional regulation between S100A14 and S100A16. Cellular treatment with protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide demonstrated a time-dependent intracellular degradation of both S100A16 and S100A14 proteins. Additionally, regulation of S100A16 and S100A14 degradation was found to be independent of the classical proteasomal and lysosomal pathways of protein degradation. Further studies will therefore be necessary to understand the functional significance of this interaction and the mechanisms on how S100A14 is involved in the regulation of S100A16 expression
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