Marine structures such as platforms, jetties and ship hulls are subject to diverse and severe biofouling. Methods for inhibiting both organic and inorganic growth on wetted substrates are varied but most antifouling systems take the form of protective coatings. Biofouling can negatively affect the hydrodynamics of a hull by increasing the required propulsive power and the fuel consumption. This paper reviews the development of antifouling coatings for the prevention of marine biological fouling. As a result of the 2001 International Maritime Organization (IMO) ban on tributyltin (TBT), replacement antifouling coatings have to be environmentally acceptable as well as maintain a long life. Tin-free self-polishing copolymer (SPC) and foul release technologies are current applications but many alternatives have been suggested. Modern approaches to environmentally effective antifouling systems and their performance are highlighted
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