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Cardiovascular events in patients under age fifty with early findings of elevated lipid and glucose levels - The AMORIS study.

By Torbjörn Ivert, Håkan Malmström, Niklas Hammar, Axel C Carlsson, Per E Wändell, Martin J Holzmann, Ingmar Jungner, Johan Ärnlöv and Göran Walldius

Abstract

BACKGROUND:The long-term trajectories of lipid and glucose levels in subjects who experience a major cardiovascular (CV) event at a young age has not been well studied. Our objective was to investigate lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein (apo), and glucose levels in individuals experiencing a CV event before 50 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A first CV event [non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularisation, or CV related death] before age 50 was recorded in 2,939 (cumulative incidence 1.2% in males and 0.3% in females) of 361,353 individuals included in the prospective Swedish AMORIS (Apolipoprotein-related MOrtality RISk) study with health examinations 1985-1996 and follow-up through 2011. In a nested case-control analysis, cases with a CV event were matched to randomly selected controls. Population risk factor trajectories were calculated up to 20 years prior to an event. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and glucose levels were higher in cases than in controls as early as 20 years prior to the event with differences increasing over time. Low density lipoprotein, apoB, and the apoB/apoA-1 ratio were higher and increased over time, while HDL and apoA-1 were lower in cases compared to controls. The odds ratio was 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6-3.7) for TC ≥5 mmol/L and TG ≥1.7 mmol/L in cases versus controls. The adjusted population-attributable fractions including lipids, glucose, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, and obesity indicated that about 50% of CV events before age 50 may be associated with elevated lipid and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated TC, TG, LDL, apoB, and glucose levels and high apoB/apo A-1 ratio documented two decades before a CV event in subjects younger than 50 years may account for about half of CV events before age 50, which calls for early recognition and possibly treatment of modifiable CV risk factors in young individuals

Topics: Medicine, R, Science, Q
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201972
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:99e581f382c4481ebcc7cdace709c00d
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