This thesis investigates the use of static, adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative\ud approaches to the personalisation of content and graphical user interfaces (GUIs).\ud This empirical study consisted of three experimental phases. The first examined the\ud use of static, adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to web content.\ud More specifically, it measured the usability (efficiency, frequency of error\ud occurrence, effectiveness and satisfaction) of an e-commerce website. The experiment\ud was conducted with 60 subjects and was tested empirically by four independent\ud groups (15 subjects each). The second experiment examined the use of adaptive,\ud adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to GUIs. More specifically, it measured the\ud usability (efficiency, frequency of error occurrence, effectiveness and satisfaction) in\ud GUI control structures (menus). In addition, it investigated empirically the effects of\ud content size on five different personalised menu types. In order to carry out this\ud comparative investigation, two independent experiments were conducted, on small\ud menus (17 items) and large ones (29 items) respectively. The experiment was\ud conducted with 60 subjects and was tested empirically by four independent groups\ud (15 subjects each). The third experiment was conducted with 40 subjects and was\ud tested empirically by four dependent groups (5 subjects each). The aim of the third\ud experiment was to mitigate the drawbacks of the adaptive, adaptable and mixedinitiative\ud approaches, to improve their performance and to increase their usability by\ud using multimodal auditory solutions (speech, earcons and auditory icons). The results\ud indicate that the size of content affects the usability of personalised approaches. In\ud other words, as the size of content increases, so does the need of the adaptive and\ud mixed-initiative approaches, whereas that of the adaptable approach decreases. A set\ud of empirically derived guidelines were also produced to assist designers with the use\ud of adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to web content and GUI\ud control structure
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