Bradford Scholars

    The Nikumaroro bones identification controversy: First-hand examination versus evaluation by proxy — Amelia Earhart found or still missing?

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    YesAmerican celebrity aviator Amelia Earhart was lost over the Pacific Ocean during her press-making 1937 round-the-world flight. The iconic woman pilot remains a media interest nearly 80 years after her disappearance, with perennial claims of finds pinpointing her location. Though no sign of the celebrity pilot or her plane have been definitively identified, possible skeletal remains have been attributed to Earhart. The partial skeleton was recovered and investigated by British officials in 1940. Their investigation concluded that the remains were those of a stocky, middle-aged male. A private historic group re-evaluated the British analysis in 1998 as part of research to establish Gardner (Nikumaroro) Island as the crash site. The 1998 report discredited the British conclusions and used cranial analysis software (FORDISC) results to suggest that the skeleton was potentially a Northern European woman, and consistent with Amelia Earhart. A critical review of both investigations and contextual evidence shows that the original British osteological analyses were made by experienced, reliable professionals, while the cranial analysis is unreliable given the available data. Without access to the missing original bones, it is impossible to be definitive, but on balance, the most robust scientific analysis and conclusions are those of the original British finding indicating that the Nikumaroro bones belonged to a robust, middle-aged man, not Amelia Earhart

    Workplace flexibility practices and corporate performance: evidence from the British private sector

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    YesThis paper investigates the relationship between workplace flexibility practices (WFPs) and corporate performance using data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004. Disaggregating WFPs into numerical, functional and cost aspects enables the analysis of their relationships to an objective measure of corporate performance, namely workplace financial turnover. Furthermore separate analyses are presented for different types of workplace: differentiated by workforce size; ownership; age; wage level; and unionization. Results show that different types of workplaces need to pay attention to the mix of WFPs they adopt. We find that certain cost WFPs (profit-related pay, merit pay and payment-by-results) have strong positive relationships with corporate performance. However, training delivers mixed corporate performance results, while the extent of job autonomy and the proportion of part-time employees in a workplace have an inverse association with corporate performance. Given the limited existing research examining disaggregated measures of WFPs and objectively measured corporate performance, this paper offers useful insights for firms, policy makers and the overall economy

    An Assessment of the 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States: Continuity and Change.

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    The 2002 National Security Strategy of the US (NSS 2002) appeared to have presented a momentous approach to self-defense. To many, the doctrine of preemptive selfdefense seemed to challenge the legal and political foundations of the post-World War II international order. Some saw in the US stated reliance on preemption a direct threat to the international system embodied in the UN Charter. The prima facie case that the US position was novel and even dangerous appeared persuasive. This thesis attempts to assess the exceptionality of NSS 2002 in its formulation and implications. This question of exceptionality is broadly divided into two sections. The first section deals with internal exceptionality, in terms of means (the deliberation and drafting processes) and ends (the US defense posture). The second section deals with external exceptionality in the broader terms of possible consequences outside the US. Section One begins by establishing the grounds for looking into the formulation of NSS 2002, and provides the background for that Strategy's mandated precursors. After exploring how National Security Strategy documents are conceived and framed, Section One discusses the Strategy as it was published, and examines a sampling of contemporaneous reactions to its publication. Section Two concentrates on the second part of the research question, and utilizes a thematic approach ¿ in terms of the use of force, the international security environment, and international law. Possible consequences of the proposed US response to contemporary security challenges are considered in these three key areas

    Performance Management

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    YesAfter reading this chapter you will be able to: Examine the role of Performance Management in ensuring effective business performance; Consider how a culture of suitable measurement can be established and how sustainable performance can be embedded; Demonstrate a systematic understanding of the processes involved in the development and implementation of Performance Management systems; Devise and use performance measures to inform the performance management system; Assess the benefits and drawbacks inherent in the implementation of Performance Management Systems; Analyse and evaluate different Performance Management methodologies; and Synthesise and analyse data and information and evaluate its relevance and validity in the context of any given organisation

    Social elites on the board and executive pay in developing countries: Evidence from Africa

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    NoThis study applies a new multi-focal actor-centered institution-theoretic approach to examine the association between executive pay and the recruitment of social elites to the board of directors in developing countries. We use a sample of 119 initial public offerings (IPOs) from 17 African stock markets to model this relationship. The results suggest that a higher proportion of elites on the board is associated with lower executive pay. This is moderated by institutional quality; that is, lower institutional quality is associated with more directors drawn from social elites and with higher pay, while the opposite is true in higher-institutional-quality environments. Our findings confirm the importance of the social environment within which governance is embedded

    Triple-layer Tissue Prediction for Cutaneous Skin Burn Injury: Analytical Solution and Parametric Analysis

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    YesThis paper demonstrates a non-Fourier prediction methodology of triple-layer human skin tissue for determining skin burn injury with non-ideal properties of tissue, metabolism and blood perfusion. The dual-phase lag (DPL) bioheat model is employed and solved using joint integral transform (JIT) through Laplace and Fourier transforms methods. Parametric studies on the effects of skin tissue properties, initial temperature, blood perfusion rate and heat transfer parameters for the thermal response and exposure time of the layers of the skin tissue are carried out. The study demonstrates that the initial tissue temperature, the thermal conductivity of the epidermis and dermis, relaxation time, thermalisation time and convective heat transfer coefficient are critical parameters to examine skin burn injury threshold. The study also shows that thermal conductivity and the blood perfusion rate exhibits negligible effects on the burn injury threshold. The objective of the present study is to support the accurate quantification and assessment of skin burn injury for reliable experimentation, design and optimisation of thermal therapy delivery.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 15th Apr 2022

    Examining the success of the online public grievance redressal systems: an extension of the IS success model

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    YesThe purpose of this article is to examine the success of the online public grievance redressal system from the perspective of the citizens of India. The empirical outcomes provided the positive significant connections between all 13 hypothesized relationships among the seven constructs. The empirical evidence and discussion presented in the study can help the Indian government to improve upon and fully utilize the potential of the online public grievance redressal system for transparent and corruption free country

    Fatty acid and lipid profiles in models of neuroinflammation and mood disorders. Application of high field NMR, gas chromotography and liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the effects of atorvaststin in brain and liver lipids and explore brain lipid changes in the FSL model of depression.

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    Lipids are important for the structural and physiological functions of neuronal cell membranes. Alterations in their lipid composition may result in membrane dysfunction and subsequent neuronal deficits that characterise various disorders. This study focused on profiling lipids of aged and LPS-treated rat brain and liver tissue with a view to explore the effect of atorvastatin in neuroinflammation, and examining lipid changes in different areas of rat brain of the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression. Lipids and other analytes extracted from tissue samples were analysed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Changes in the lipid profiles suggested that brain and liver responded differently to ageing and LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In the aged animals, n-3 PUFA were reduced in the brain but were increased in the liver. However, following treatment with LPS, these effects were not observed. Nevertheless, in both models, brain concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased while the liver was able to maintain its monounsaturated fatty acid concentration. Atorvastatin reversed the reduction in n-3 PUFA in the aged brain without reducing brain and liver concentration of cholesterol. These findings further highlight alterations in lipid metabolism in agerelated neuroinflammation and show that the anti-inflammatory actions of atorvastatin may include a modulation of fatty acid metabolism. When studying the FSL model, there were differences in the lipid profile of different brain areas of FSL rats compared to Sprague-Dawley controls. In all brain areas, arachidonic acid was increased in the FSL rats. Docosahexaenoic acid and ether lipids were reduced, while cholesterol and sphingolipids were increased in the hypothalamus of the FSL rats. Furthermore, total diacylglycerophospholipids were reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus of the FSL rats. These results show differences in the lipid metabolism of the FSL rat brain and may be suggestive of changes occurring in the brain tissue in depression

    Midwifery knowledge and the medical student experience. An exploration of the concept of midwifery knowledge and its use in medical students' construction of knowledge during a specialist obstetric rotation

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    The literature concerning what medical students learn from midwives during specialist obstetric rotations is scarce. In the UK, despite a long tradition of providing midwifery attachments for medical students, it is almost non-existent. Working with midwives is arguably the only opportunity medical students have to experience holistic or social models of maternity care, focusing on normality rather than on the medical concept of risk. This study sought to discover how medical students constructed their knowledge about childbirth during a six week specialist rotation in obstetrics in a Northern English teaching hospital (NETH), with particular emphasis on whether participants assimilated any concepts from midwifery knowledge (MK). A Delphi Study, done as the first phase of the research, focused on MK, utilizing an international sample of experienced midwives. Resulting themes were used to develop the data collection tool for the second phase of the research. The research employed a qualitative case study method with students from a single year cohort comprising the case. Data were collected using a tool consisting of three problem based learning (PBL) scenarios. These were presented to the students in consecutive interviews at the beginning, the middle and the end of their obstetric rotation. Following analysis, five main themes were identified which illuminated the medical students' construction of knowledge about maternity care. These were explored and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for increasing opportunities for IPE in the medical and midwifery curricula

    Adaptive technique for energy management in wireless sensor networks. Development, simulation and evaluation of adaptive techniques for energy efficient routing protocols applied to cluster based wireless sensor networks.

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    Recently, wireless sensor networks have become one of the most exciting areas for research and development. However, sensor nodes are battery operated, thus the sensor¿s ability to perform its assigned tasks is limited by its battery capacity; therefore, energy efficiency is considered to be a key issue in designing WSN applications. Clustering has emerged as a useful mechanism for trade-off between certain design goal conflicts; the network life time, and the amount of data obtained. However, different sources of energy waste still exist. Furthermore, in such dynamic environments, different data rate requirements emerge due to the current network status, thus adapting a response to the changing network is essential, rather than following the same principle during the network¿s lifespan. This thesis presents dynamic techniques to adapt to network changes, through which the limited critical energy source can be wisely managed so that the WSN application can achieve its intended design goals. Two approaches have been taken to decreasing the energy use. The first approach is to develop two dynamic round time controllers, called the minimum round time controller MIN-RC and the variable round time controller VAR-RC, whereas the second approach improves intra-cluster communication using a Co-Cluster head; both approaches show better energy utilisation compared to traditional protocols. A third approach has been to develop a general hybrid protocol H-RC that can adapt different applications requirements; it can also tolerate different data rate requirements for the same application during the system¿s lifetime
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