Bradford Scholars

Procter & Gamble (United Kingdom)

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    10813 research outputs found

    “We don’t know who be who”: post-party politics, forum shopping and Liberia’s 2017 elections

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    YesLiberia’s 2017 elections represented a watershed moment in the country’s political history. In addition to completing the first democratic transfer of power from one president to another since 1944, it resulted in wide representation across many different parties and independents as well as high levels of legislative turn-overs. Additionally, these polls brought forward unprecedented numbers of party reconfigurations, increased levels of defections, and politicians/parties losing abysmally in presumed ethno-regional bases. In this article, we argue that Liberia currently exists in a post-war arena of “post-party” politics where a profound disregard for parties is the norm, and in which the electorate and politicians alike forum shop for candidates and/or political configurations they presume will deliver the best results at national, sub-national and local levels. Although literature exploring electoral trends in Africa tends to over-emphasize ethno-regionalism as a driver and constraint in the choices of voters and politicians, we demonstrate instead that Liberians make relatively informed, strategic decisions about political alliances and ballot casting thereby subverting allegiances to ethnicity and region. By further eschewing party loyalties, Liberians have gradually become astute forum shoppers in a political marketplace that makes running for office and voting complex undertakings

    Apigenin cocrystals: from computational prescreening to physicochemical property characterization

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    YesApigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, APG) has many potential therapeutic benefits; however, its poor aqueous solubility has limited its clinical applications. In this work, a large scale cocrystal screening has been conducted, aiming to discover potential APG cocrystals for enhancement of its solubility and dissolution rate. In order to reduce the number of the experimental screening tests, three computational prescreening tools, i.e., molecular complementarity (MC), hydrogen bond propensity (HBP), and hydrogen bond energy (HBE), were used to provide an initial selection of 47 coformer candidates, leading to the discovery of seven APG cocrystals. Among them, six APG cocrystal structures have been determined by successful growth of single crystals, i.e., apigenin-carbamazepine hydrate 1:1:1 cocrystal, apigenin-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethane hydrate 1:1:1 cocrystal, apigenin-valerolactam 1:2 cocrystal, apigenin-(dl) proline 1:2 cocrystal, apigenin-(d) proline/(l) proline 1:1 cocrystal. All of the APG cocrystals showed improved dissolution performances with the potential to be formulated into drug products.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 12 April 2024

    Parametric analysis on flexural performance of reactive powder concrete frame beams reinforced with steel-FRP composite bars

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    YesTo study the flexural behavior of Steel-FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Polymer) Composite Bars (SFCBs) reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) frame beams, the flexural behavior of six frame beams with different types of concrete and reinforcement was simulated and analyzed using the finite element software ABAQUS. The strain behavior of concrete and reinforcement was simulated using real strain models, and the simulation results matched well with the experimental results. Based on the validated model, the effect of mechanical properties of concrete and SFCB, reinforcement ratio, and the dimensions of frame beam on the flexural behavior of frame beams was parametrically analyzed. The results showed that, compared with the steel-reinforced ordinary concrete (OC) frame beam, the ultimate deflection of SFCB-OC frame beam increased by 5%. Compared with the SFCB-OC frame beam, the bearing capacity and ultimate deflection of the SFCB-RPC frame beam increased by 16% and 22%, respectively. Improving the steel content of SFCB reduced the ultimate load and deformation of SFCB-RPC frame beam. The yield strength of SFCB core steel had a significant influence on the yield load of frame beam, but a small influence on the ultimate load and deformation. Enhancing the elastic modulus of SFCB out-wrapped FRP reduced the ultimate deformation of the frame beam. Improving the reinforcement ratio of SFCB increased the bearing capacity and reduced the deformation. When reinforced concrete frame beams had similar bearing capacity, the cross-sectional dimensions of steel-RPC frame beam, FRP-RPC frame beam, and SFCB-RPC frame beam are 90.1%, 61.5%, and 72.7%, respectively, of those of their corresponding respective reinforced OC frame beams. All reinforced RPC frame beams exhibited high bearing capacity, good deformation, ductility, and energy dissipation performance. This research can provide a reference for the design of SFCB-RPC frame beams.High-End Foreign Experts Project of Ministry of Science and Technology, China (G2022014054L), the Science and Technology Project of Gansu Construction System (JK2021-19), the Science and Technology Project of Jiangsu Construction System (2018ZD047, 2021ZD06, 2023ZD104, 2023ZD105), the Science and Technology Cooperation Fund Project of Yangzhou City and Yangzhou University (YZ2022194), the Yangzhou Construction System Science and Technology Project (202309, 202312), the Research Project of Jiangsu Civil Engineering and Architecture Society (the Second Half of 2022).The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 27 Jan 2025

    The impact of Chinese airport infrastructure on airline pollutant emissions: A hybrid stochastic-neural network approach based on utility functions

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    YesWith China being the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and its aviation sector burgeoning, the environmental performance of Chinese airlines has global significance. Amidst rising demands for eco-friendly practices from both customers and regulators, the interplay between airport infrastructure and environmental performance becomes pivotal. This research offers an innovative methodology to gauge the environmental performance of Chinese airlines, emphasizing the distance traveled between airports using weighted additive utility functions. Leveraging neural networks, the study investigates the impact of various airport infrastructural characteristics on environmental performance. Noteworthy findings indicate that ground control measures, automatic information services at origin airports, surface concrete on runways at both ends, and a centerline lighting system in destination airports positively influence environmental performance. In contrast, longer and wider runways at origin airports, increased distances to control towers, and asphalt runways at destination airports adversely affect it. These insights not only underscore the importance of strategic infrastructure enhancements for reducing carbon footprints but also hold profound policy implications. As global climate change remains at the forefront, fostering sustainable airport infrastructure in China can significantly contribute to worldwide mitigation efforts.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 18 Jan 2025

    A participatory approach to understand what might be most meaningful to people living with dementia in a positive psychology intervention

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    YesThis study aimed to understand which character strengths are most important for people living with dementia and therefore which strengths-based psychological interventions could be most meaningful and acceptable. A participatory design, utilising Delphi methodology, was incorporated into an iterative three stage framework: (1) literature reviewed for Positive Psychology (PP) interventions and patient public involvement to define the character strengths; (2) modified Delphi (N = 10) identified which character strengths are most important for living with dementia; (3) focus groups (N = 14) explored which PP interventions are most acceptable and meaningful. Qualitative data from the focus groups was analysed using thematic analysis. Love, kindness and humour were deemed the most important character strengths for living with dementia. Qualitative data from the focus groups was captured in three superordinate themes: (1) lack of opportunity not capacity; (2) key considerations of PP interventions for people living with dementia; and (3) potential benefits of PP interventions. Love, kindness and humour come naturally to people with dementia, but people may lack social opportunities to use these strengths. Therefore, a PP intervention promoting positive emotion, social relationships and connection to one's values appears most meaningful and acceptable as this may provide a social context to use and maintain these strengths

    On stakeholder theory and corporate investment under financial frictions

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    YesThe view that corporations have a wider focus than just maximizing shareholder value has received considerable attention from practitioners, managers, and academics alike. We investigate the Q theory of corporate investment with financial frictions when management maximizes stakeholder value instead of shareholder value. Different objective functions are investigated. We characterize the optimal investment and financial policy of the firm. The results show that stakeholder firms invest more than shareholder firms, i.e., over-investing, and an increase of stakeholder shares increases investment, except when equity issuing firms face severe informational asymmetries or severe cost of external equity. We also discuss different approaches to model investment of stakeholder firms and their implications for empirical analysis.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo - 24 months after publication

    An exploratory study on virtual reality and in-person effects on loneliness

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    YesMost studies investigated the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) for healthcare and educational purposes, but little is known on the effectiveness of VR in social interaction. Our aim was to examine whether VR would be similar to in-person interaction in reducing loneliness. A total of 73 participants participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to in-person or VR condition and interacted for 15 minutes about a tourist landmark. Participants completed a set of questions that measured belonging – acceptance and exclusion, positive and negative affect, wellbeing, trust, and mood before and after the interaction. Results showed that in both conditions, loneliness was significantly lower, with higher wellbeing, higher positive and lower negative affect, feeling happier and had more fun post task. Trust was higher in the VR condition post task but not for in-person. Our regression analyses showed that having higher wellbeing was a significant predictor in reducing loneliness for in-person condition and that being older and higher belonging – acceptance were significant predictors on feeling lonelier for the VR condition. In sum, our results demonstrated some success in reducing loneliness in VR but may not be sufficient to develop lasting friendship.The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 07 Nov 2024

    The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): Taking stock and looking ahead for international business research

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    YesThe establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) has opened new avenues of research interest in International Business and International Management. However, scholarly work in this fledgling area of research has been disparate and often lacking in the assessment of core international business implications of the emergence of the AfCFTA on member states as well as non-member states. This is because, as yet, no systematic attempt has been made to explore the AfCFTA in the context of IB research, or project future IB research directions. Hence, in this paper, using the PRISMA method we have systematically identified the current published research and scholarly work on the AfCFTA and provided a robust picture of the current state of knowledge and available literature on the AfCFTA while at the same time outlining potential areas for future international business researc

    Living well with dementia: An exploratory matched analysis of minority ethnic and white people with dementia and carers participating in the IDEAL programme

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    YesThe increasing heterogeneity of the population of older people is reflected in an increasing number of people with dementia and carers drawn from minority ethnic groups. Data from the IDEAL study are used to compare indices of 'living well' among people with dementia and carers from ethnic minority groups with matched white peers. We used an exploratory cross-sectional case-control design to compare 'living well' for people with dementia and carers from minority ethnic and white groups. Measures for both groups were quality of life, life satisfaction, wellbeing, loneliness, and social isolation and, for carers, stress, relationship quality, role captivity and caring competence. The sample of people with dementia consisted of 20 minority ethnic and 60 white participants and for carers 15 and 45 respectively. People with dementia from minority ethnic groups had poorer quality of life (-4.74, 95% CI: -7.98 to -1.50) and higher loneliness (1.72, 95% CI: 0.78-2.66) whilst minority ethnic carers had higher stress (8.17, 95% CI: 1.72-14.63) and role captivity (2.00, 95% CI: 0.43-3.57) and lower relationship quality (-9.86, 95% CI: -14.24 to -5.48) than their white peers. Our exploratory study suggests that people with dementia from minority ethnic groups experience lower quality of life and carers experience higher stress and role captivity and lower relationship quality than their white peers. Confirmatory research with larger samples is required to facilitate analysis of the experiences of specific minority ethnic groups and examine the factors contributing to these disadvantages.Economic and Social Research Council. National Institute for Health and Care Research. Grant Number: ES/L001853/

    High-fat diet effects on contractile performance of isolated mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus when supplemented with high dose vitamin D

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    YesEvidence suggests vitamin D3 (VD) supplementation can reduce accumulation of adipose tissue and inflammation and promote myogenesis in obese individuals, and thus could mitigate obesity-induced reductions in skeletal muscle (SkM) contractility. However, this is yet to be directly investigated. This study, using the work-loop technique, examined effects of VD (cholecalciferol) supplementation on isolated SkM contractility. Female mice (n = 37) consumed standard low-fat diet (SLD) or high-fat diet (HFD), with or without VD (20,000 IU/kg-1 ) for 12 weeks. Soleus and EDL (n = 8-10 per muscle per group) were isolated and absolute and normalized (to muscle size and body mass) isometric force and power output (PO) were measured, and fatigue resistance determined. Absolute and normalized isometric force and PO of soleus were unaffected by diet (P > 0.087). However, PO normalized to body mass was reduced in HFD groups (P  0.588). HFD reduced EDL isometric stress (P = 0.048) and absolute and normalized PO (P  0.493). Cumulative work during fatiguing contractions was lower in HFD groups (P  0.060). This study uniquely demonstrated that high-dose VD had limited effects on SkM contractility and did not offset demonstrated adverse effects of HFD. However, small and moderate effect sizes suggest improvement in EDL muscle performance and animal morphology in HFD VD groups. Given effect sizes observed, coupled with proposed inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve, future investigations are needed to determine dose/duration specific responses to VD, which may culminate in improved function of HFD SkM. NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Can vitamin D supplementation alleviate detrimental effects of high-fat diet (HFD) consumption on contractile performance of isolated skeletal muscles? What is the main finding and its importance? The present study is the first to examine the synergistic effects of HFD consumption and vitamin D supplementation on the contractile performance of isolated skeletal muscle. These findings suggest high dose vitamin D has limited effects on force, power or fatigue resistance of isolated mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus


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