363,468 research outputs found

    Completely Automated Public Physical test to tell Computers and Humans Apart: A usability study on mobile devices

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    A very common approach adopted to fight the increasing sophistication and dangerousness of malware and hacking is to introduce more complex authentication mechanisms. This approach, however, introduces additional cognitive burdens for users and lowers the whole authentication mechanism acceptability to the point of making it unusable. On the contrary, what is really needed to fight the onslaught of automated attacks to users data and privacy is to first tell human and computers apart and then distinguish among humans to guarantee correct authentication. Such an approach is capable of completely thwarting any automated attempt to achieve unwarranted access while it allows keeping simple the mechanism dedicated to recognizing the legitimate user. This kind of approach is behind the concept of Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA), yet CAPTCHA leverages cognitive capabilities, thus the increasing sophistication of computers calls for more and more difficult cognitive tasks that make them either very long to solve or very prone to false negatives. We argue that this problem can be overcome by substituting the cognitive component of CAPTCHA with a different property that programs cannot mimic: the physical nature. In past work we have introduced the Completely Automated Public Physical test to tell Computer and Humans Apart (CAPPCHA) as a way to enhance the PIN authentication method for mobile devices and we have provided a proof of concept implementation. Similarly to CAPTCHA, this mechanism can also be used to prevent automated programs from abusing online services. However, to evaluate the real efficacy of the proposed scheme, an extended empirical assessment of CAPPCHA is required as well as a comparison of CAPPCHA performance with the existing state of the art. To this aim, in this paper we carry out an extensive experimental study on both the performance and the usability of CAPPCHA involving a high number of physical users, and we provide comparisons of CAPPCHA with existing flavors of CAPTCHA

    What is Usability? A Characterization based on ISO 9241-11 and ISO/IEC 25010

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    According to Brooke* "Usability does not exist in any absolute sense; it can only be defined with reference to particular contexts." That is, one cannot speak of usability without specifying what that particular usability is characterized by. Driven by the feedback of a reviewer at an international conference, I explore in which way one can precisely specify the kind of usability they are investigating in a given setting. Finally, I come up with a formalism that defines usability as a quintuple comprising the elements level of usability metrics, product, users, goals and context of use. Providing concrete values for these elements then constitutes the investigated type of usability. The use of this formalism is demonstrated in two case studies. * J. Brooke. SUS: A "quick and dirty" usability scale. In P. W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B. A. Weerdmeester, and A. L. McClelland, editors, Usability Evaluation in Industry. Taylor and Francis, 1996.Comment: Technical Report; Department of Computer Science, Technische Universit\"at Chemnitz; also available from https://www.tu-chemnitz.de/informatik/service/ib/2015.php.e

    A comparative analysis of web-based GIS applications using usability metrics

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    With the rapid expansion of the internet, Web-based Geographic Information System (WGIS) applications have gained popularity, despite the interface of the WGIS application being difficult to learn and understand because special functions are needed to manipulate the maps. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the usability of WGIS applications. Usability is an important factor in ensuring the development of quality, usable software products. On the other hand, there are a number of standards and models in the literature, each of which describes usability in terms of various set of attributes. These models are vague and difficult to understand. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to compare five common usability models (Shackel, Nielsen, ISO 9241 P-11, ISO 9126-1 and QUIM) to identify usability metrics that have most frequently used in the previous models. The questionnaire method and the automated usability evaluation method by using Loop11 tool were used, in order to evaluate the usability metrics for three case studies of commonly used WGIS applications as Google maps, Yahoo maps, and MapQuest. Finally, those case studies were compared and analysed based on usability metrics that have been identified. Based on a comparative study, four usability metrics (Effectiveness, Efficiency, Satisfaction and Learnability) were identified. Those usability metrics were characterized by consistent, comprehensive, not vaguely and proper to evaluate the usability of WGIS applications. In addition, there was a positive correlation between these usability metrics. The comparative analysis indicates that Effectiveness, Satisfaction and Learnability were higher, and the Efficiency was lesser by using the Loop11 tool compared to questionnaire method for the three case studies. In addition, Yahoo Maps and MapQuest have usability metrics rate lesser than Google Maps by applying two methods. Therefore, Google Maps is more usable compared to Yahoo Maps and MapQuest

    Introduction to the new usability

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    This paper introduces the motivation for and concept of the "new usability" and positions it against existing approaches to usability. It is argued that the contexts of emerging products and systems mean that traditional approaches to usability engineering and evaluation are likely to prove inappropriate to the needs of "digital consumers." The paper briefly reviews the contributions to this special issue in terms of their relation to the idea of the "new usability" and their individual approaches to dealing with contemporary usability issues. This helps provide a background to the "new usability" research agenda, and the paper ends by posing what are argued to be the central challenges facing the area and those which lie at the heart of the proposed research agenda

    Current Practices for Product Usability Testing in Web and Mobile Applications

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    Software usability testing is a key methodology that ensures applications are intuitive and easy to use for the target audience. Usability testing has direct benefits for companies as usability improvements often are fundamental to the success of a product. A standard usability test study includes the following five steps: obtain suitable participants, design test scripts, conduct usability sessions, interpret test outcomes, and produce recommendations. Due to the increasing importance for more usable applications, effective techniques to develop usable products, as well as technologies to improve usability testing, have been widely utilized. However, as companies are developing more cross-platform web and mobile apps, traditional single-platform usability testing has shortcomings with respect to ensuring a uniform user experience. In this report, a new strategy is proposed to promote a consistent user experience across all application versions and platforms. This method integrates the testing of different application versions, e.g., the website, mobile app, mobile website. Participants are recruited with a better-defined criterion according to their preferred devices. The usability session is conducted iteratively on several different devices, and the test results of individual application versions are compared on a per-device basis to improve the test outcomes. This strategy is expected to extend on current practices for usability testing by incorporating cross-platform consistency of software versions on most devices

    A Content-Analysis Approach for Exploring Usability Problems in a Collaborative Virtual Environment

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    As Virtual Reality (VR) products are becoming more widely available in the consumer market, improving the usability of these devices and environments is crucial. In this paper, we are going to introduce a framework for the usability evaluation of collaborative 3D virtual environments based on a large-scale usability study of a mixedmodality collaborative VR system. We first review previous literature about important usability issues related to collaborative 3D virtual environments, supplemented with our research in which we conducted 122 interviews after participants solved a collaborative virtual reality task. Then, building on the literature review and our results, we extend previous usability frameworks. We identified twelve different usability problems, and based on the causes of the problems, we grouped them into three main categories: VR environment-, device interaction-, and task-specific problems. The framework can be used to guide the usability evaluation of collaborative VR environments

    Mobile Application Usability: Heuristic Evaluation and Evaluation of Heuristics

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    Ger Joyce, Mariana Lilley, Trevor Barker, and Amanda Jefferies, 'Mobile Application Usability: Heuristic Evaluation and Evaluation of Heuristics', paper presented at AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors, Software, and Systems Engineering. Walt Disney World, Florida USA, 27-31 July 2016Many traditional usability evaluation methods do not consider mobile-specific issues. This can result in mobile applications that abound in usability issues. We empirically evaluate three sets of usability heuristics for use with mobile applications, including a set defined by the authors. While the set of heuristics defined by the authors surface more usability issues in a mobile application than other sets of heuristics, improvements to the set can be made

    From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model

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    This paper presents a brief review of current game usability models. This leads to the conception of a high-level game development-centered usability model that integrates current usability approaches in game industry and game research.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figur
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