Open Access Institutional Repository at Robert Gordon University

    The real dependent variable problem: the limitations qualitative analysis in comparative policy studies.

    Get PDF
    Comparative public policy relies heavily on processing quantitative data, typically done by looking for the relationship between variables or by grouping empirical data into categories. In methodological terms, comparative data commonly deal with nations as policy units, and observations are liable to be interconnected, rather than independent. In statistical terms, there are problems in the identification of appropriate data, violations of the assumptions are rife, and there are just not enough nations to be able to make comparisons sensibly in these terms. The 'dependent variable' problem relates to the definition, operationalization and measurement of key variables, but the problems of comparison go deeper than that. The real dependent variable problem is whether it makes sense to look for a dependent variable at all. The evidence is always equivocal; a methodology that attempts to bracket off disparate influences cannot be valid; and attempting to apply general principles across different circumstances and conditions is inconsistent with what we know about policy development. Quantitative methods offer ways to sort and systematize information, but they do not provide a basis for generalization

    A cross case thematic analysis of systemic leadership development.

    Get PDF
    This research examined which factors of influence contributed towards efficacious systemic leadership development, within case studies in the energy and military sectors, and identified and explained common underlying themes and factors which could help formulate future interventions, as well as enhance extant theoretical knowledge. The literature showed that key challenges exist in identifying what contribution leadership development makes to enhancing organisational leadership, and as such, social capital and systemic development. To focus the research, specific definitions were constructed, as to what sort of effective leadership positively impacts upon organisational leadership; which cardinal themes of leadership development traverse interventions, namely Delivery, Contextualisation, Performance, Impact and Values integration; and what constitutes systemic leadership development. A Social Constructivist position was adopted which explains the nature of the phenomena underlying systemic leadership development

    Predictive analytics for the Vipulanandan rheological model and its correlative effect for nanoparticle modification of drilling mud.

    Get PDF
    Modelling the flow of nanoparticle modified drilling mud (or nano-drilling muds) requires the use of existing generic time-independent models with the addition of nanoparticle terms having a number of parameters incorporated. These parameters quantify the uncertainties surrounding nanoparticle contributions to drilling mud rheology. However, when the parameters in the overall model become too large, the tuning of each parameter for proper flow description can be challenging and time-consuming. In addition, the predictive capability of known models for the different regimes associated with the flow of nano-drilling muds is limited in scope and application. For example, computational analysis involving nano-drilling muds have been described using Herschel-Buckley, Power-Law, Bingham Plastic, Robertson-Stiff, Casson, Sisko, and Prandtl-Eyring. However, these models have been shown over time to have limited predictive capability in accurately describing the flow behavior over the full spectrum of shear rates. Recently, a new rheological model, the Vipulanandan model, has gained attraction due to its extensive predictive capability compared to known generic time-independent models. In this work, a rheological and computational analysis of the Vipulanandan model was carried out with specific emphasis on its modification to account for the effects of nanoparticles on drilling muds. The outcome of this novel approach is that the Vipulanandan model can be modified to account for the effect of interaction between nanoparticles and clay particles. The modified Vipulanandan show better prediction for a 6.3 wt% mud with R2 of 0.999 compared to 0.962 for Power law and 0.991 for Bingham. However, the R2 value was the same with Herschel Buckley model but the RMSE value show better prediction for the Vipulanandan model with a value of 0.377 Pa compared to the 0.433 Pa for Herschel Buckley model

    Engineering improved balance confidence in older adults with complex health care needs: learning from the muscling up against disability study.

    Get PDF
    This study investigated the correlation between balance confidence, and physical and cognitive markers of wellbeing. The study was particularly focused on the demographic of older adults who were in receipt of government-funded aged-care services. The research also investigated whether progressive resistance plus balance training could positively influence change. The study was designed as an intervention study at a community-based, older-adult exercise clinic. Participants consisted of older adults (N=245) who had complex care needs and who were receiving government-funded aged-care support. The intervention consisted of 24 weeks of twice-weekly progressive resistance plus balance training, carried out under the supervision of accredited exercise physiologists. The primary outcome measure for the sutdy was the activity-specific balance confidence score. Secondary measures included the short physical performance battery, fall history, hierarchical timed balance tests, geriatric anxiety index, geriatric depression score, FRAIL scale and EuroQol 5D 3L. Results: At baseline, higher physical performance (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) and quality of life (r = 0.52, p < 0.01) predicted better balance confidence. In contrast, at baseline, higher levels of frailty predicted worse balance confidence (r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Change in balance confidence following the exercise intervention was accompanied by improved physical performance (+12%) and decreased frailty (-11%). Baseline balance confidence was identified as the most consistent negative predictor of change scores across the intervention. This study shows that reduced physical performance and quality of life, and increasing frailty, are predictive of poor balance confidence among older adults with aged-care needs. However, when a targeted intervention of resistance and balance exercise is implemented, reducing frailty and increasing physical performance, balance confidence will also improve. Given the influence of balance confidence on a raft of wellbeing determinants, including the capacity for positive physical and cognitive change, this study offers important insights relevant for researchers investigating how to reduce falls among older adults

    A comparative study between digital and scale model simulations of a luminous environment under a sunny clear sky.

    Get PDF
    When comparing ditital simulations with experimental field measurements, we often find references associated with a large margin of uncertainty. In other words, to what degree do the results come close to the real situations studied? Indeed, a number of research studies attest to the significant difference between the two simulated and real situations. This work consists of two comparative experiments: i) Comparison between the results of the digital simulation of the levels of illuminance on a work plan carried out by the two software Radiance 2 BETA and Ecotect5.5., As well as ii) Comparison of the results obtained by a digital simulation of the levels of illuminance on a work plan carried out by means of two software programs, namely Radiance 2 BETA and Ecotect 5.5. A simulation by models (models) under a clear sunny sky. The results obtained prove differencees in the comparison. The most important ones are presented by the discrepancies between the data measureed and simulated by the Ecotect 5.5 software. The data measured and those simulated by the Radiance 2 BETA software have smaller deviations

    Multi-label classification via label correlation and first order feature dependance in a data stream.

    Get PDF
    Many batch learning algorithms have been introduced for offline multi-label classification (MLC) over the years. However, the increasing data volume in many applications such as social networks, sensor networks, and traffic monitoring has posed many challenges to batch MLC learning. For example, it is often expensive to re-train the model with the newly arrived samples, or it is impractical to learn on the large volume of data at once. The research on incremental learning is therefore applicable to a large volume of data and especially for data stream. In this study, we develop a Bayesian-based method for learning from multi-label data streams by taking into consideration the correlation between pairs of labels and the relationship between label and feature. In our model, not only the label correlation is learned with each arrived sample with ground truth labels but also the number of predicted labels are adjusted based on Hoeffding inequality and the label cardinality. We also extend the model to handle missing values, a problem common in many real-world data. To handle concept drift, we propose a decay mechanism focusing on the age of the arrived samples to incrementally adapt to the change of data. The experimental results show that our method is highly competitive compared to several well-known benchmark algorithms under both the stationary and concept drift settings. Please note that the published title differs from this accepted manuscript "Multi-label classification via labels correlation and one-dependence features on data stream.

    The welfare state: a general theory.

    Get PDF
    A major orginal work of social theory, this book presents a distinctive and tightly argued theoretical model for understanding the basis of welfare in society. The author develops a theory of welfare based on a series of basic propositions: that people live in society and have obligations to each other; that welfare is obtained and maintained through social action; and that the welfare state is a means of promoting and maintaining welfare in society. Each of these propositions is examined and developed to suggest a clear way of understanding the foundations of social welfare

    A generative design case study for UAV-based assembly and fabrication: parametric analysis and synthesis of Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas.

    Get PDF
    Purpose: This study proposes a DfMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly) based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and uses Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas as the main case study due to their geometric modularity. In Islamic architecture, different geographic regions are known to have used various design and construction methods of “Muqarnas”, a type of decorated dome. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a study on parametric analysis of the Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas and analyses its components, geometric relations and construction methods that should be considered when constructing one. This study aims to use the Muqarnas analysis as a driver to generate a DfMA basis on the UAVs and parametric fabrication. In Islamic architecture, different geographic regions use various design and construction methods of Muqarnas. There are four main parameters of the Muqarnas that define their classification; first, their three-dimensional shape, that provides volume. Second, the size of their modules is variable. Third, their own specific generative process-algorithm, and finally, the two-dimensional pattern plan that is used as a basis in the design. Thus, the authors present a global analytical study that drives a generative system to construct Muqarnas, through a careful balance of the four parameters. Findings: This study thus presents a global analytical study that drives a generative system to construct Muqarnas, through a careful balance of four specifications. The paper reports the result of using a parametric tool, Grasshopper and parametric plugins, for creating a generative system of several types of Muqarnas. This synthetic translation aims at expanding our understanding of parametric analysis and synthesis of traditional architecture, advancing our understanding towards using parametric synthesis, with the scope to fabricate and assemble modules towards UAV-based fabrication of Muqarnas. To do so, the authors are taking advantage of their inherent repetition and recursion. Originality/value: In the first step, this paper reviews studies on traditional Muqarnas (both Iranian and non-Iranian) and relevant parametric approaches. In the second step, the study aims to create a general generative system for Muqarnas. The creation of a generative system for Muqarnas is driven towards the creation of three-dimensional fabrication of their components so that these are assembled automatically using a swarm of UAVs. This particular drive imposes specific constraints in the parametric system, as the assembly of the final components, the authors posit, can only take place in a pick and place fashion

    A novel practical state of charge estimation method: an adaptive improved ampere?hour method based on composite correction factor.

    Get PDF
    The research of the real-time state of charge (SOC) estimation method for lithium-ion battery is developing towards the trend of model diversification and algorithm complexity. However, due to the limitation of computing ability in the actual battery management system, the traditional ampere-hour (Ah) method is still widely used. First, temperature, charge-discharge current, and battery aging are considered as the main factors, which affect the estimation accuracy of the Ah method under the condition that detection accuracy of the current sensor is determined. Second, the relationship between the SOC and battery open-circuit voltage at different temperatures is analyzed, which is used to modify the initial SOC. Third, the influence mechanism of main factors on the effect of the Ah method is analyzed, and proposes a capacity composite correction factor to reflect the influence of charge-discharge efficiency, coulomb efficiency, and battery aging comprehensively, and then update its value in real-time. Lastly, the adaptive improved Ah formula and the complete SOC estimation model is designed, and the estimation effect of this model is verified by comparing with other SOC estimation methods in the experiment of dynamic cycle test. The results show that the estimation error of the adaptive improved method is less than 2% under two comprehensive working conditions, while the error of the traditional method is 5% to 10%, and compared with an extended kalman filter algorithm, it also gets a better SOC estimation performance, which proves that this method is scientific and effective

    What natural and social scientists need from each other for effective marine environmental assessment: insights from collaborative research on the Tomakomai CCS demonstration project.

    Get PDF
    We propose actions to guide collaboration between ‘natural’ and ‘social’ science disciplines in marine environmental issues. Despite enthusiasm for interdisciplinarity on environmental issues, institutional and disciplinary barriers remain for interdisciplinary working in practice. This paper explores what natural and social scientists need from each other for more effective impact assessment in the marine environment. We reflect on collaboration between natural- (especially marine biology) and social scientists (especially environmental sociology) researching the Tomakomai CCS Demonstration Project in Japan; including subsequent expansion of the research team and wider evaluation of project outcomes. We identify two areas of mutual support: community and stakeholder engagement on marine monitoring; and identification of points in regulatory/policy processes where qualitative findings may gain traction alongside quantitative results. We suggest interdisciplinary collaboration for marine environmental research could be helped by making time to learn from each other within projects; and by working together more closely in the field
    Open Access Institutional Repository at Robert Gordon Universityis based in GB
    Access Repository Dashboard
    Do you manage Open Access Institutional Repository at Robert Gordon University? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard! CORE Repository Dashboard!