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    Physical activity as a mediator of stress, anxiety and depression on well-being in physical education teachers

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    The teaching profession is currently at high psychological risk, with a large number of teachers showing high levels of anxiety, depression and stress. It has been shown that through the practice of physical activity the occurrence of these disruptive states can be prevented. The main purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate a multi-group equation model of the effect of anxiety, depression and stress on psychological well-being as a function of weekly physical activity time. An ex post facto, descriptive and comparative study is presented in a sample of 4117 teachers. The instruments used for data collection were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Psychological Well-being Scale and a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic variables. The results show that leading an active lifestyle helps to reduce the effect of anxiety, depression and stress on well-being. The conclusion is that being physically active helps to reduce the effect of disruptive states on well-being

    Remote Asymmetric Bisvinylogous [4+2] Cycloaddition Reaction to Synthesize Spirocyclic Frameworks

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    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic synthesis of spirocyclic compounds by Diels-Alder reactions via trienamine using cyclic 2,5-dienones as bisvinylogous precursors and different nitroalkenes as dienophiles is described. The use of cinchonidine-based primary amine as catalyst and benzoic acid as co-catalyst has allowed the construction of a wide variety of spiro compounds containing three stereogenic centres in good yields and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Additionally, other dienophiles have been evaluated exhibiting different behaviour depending on the electron withdrawing group nature. Subsequent transformations have yielded complex structures with up to five stereocentres. The plausible reaction mechanism has been investigated by computational methods.We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (project RED2018-102387-T and RED2022-134287-T) the Spanish Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER, EU) (projects CTQ2017-82935-P and PID2019-107268GB−I00), the Generalitat Valenciana (IDIFEDER/2021/013, GVA-COVID19/2021/079 and CIDEGENT/2020/058), Medalchemy S. L. (Medalchemy-18T), the University of Alicante (VIGROB-068, UAUSTI21-05) and Gobierno Vasco (IT1553-22)

    Physical and psychological conditions in kayaking: Strength, flexibility, and motivation

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    The effect of physical condition factors such as strength and flexibility on kayaking has been widely investigated. However, little information is found regarding psychological factors such as motivation and how they are simultaneously involved. Therefore, this research aims to analyse the elements of physical (arm muscle strength and waist flexibility) and psychological (achievement motivation) conditions on the ability to row a kayak. A total of 17 male athletes in Aceh province, Indonesia, participated in this research voluntarily. Participants were athletes registered with the Indonesian Rowing Association and had participated in championships at the provincial level (22.32 ± 1.02 years, 71.56 ± 3.64 kg, 173.09 ± 2.17 cm, and BMI 23.89 ± 2.88). Each data was collected using push and pull dynamometer tests, sit and reach tests, questionnaires, and ergometer machines. The data were then analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis. The results showed that arm muscle strength, waist flexibility, and achievement motivation influenced kayak rowing ability (R = 0.933; F = 29.17; p < .05). Partially, the influence value of arm muscle strength was R = 0.727; F = 16.79; t = 4.09; p < .05, waist flexibility was R = 0.695; F = 14.04; t = 3.74; p < .05, and achievement motivation was R = 0.817; F = 30.13; t = 5.48; p < .05. Of these three elements, motivation was reported as the most dominant element, followed by arm muscle strength and waist flexibility. Finally, it is important for coaches, athletes, and practitioners to consider these elements in achieving optimal rowing ability

    El paisaje a través de la representación gráfica: la Realidad Aumentad como herramienta de interpretación

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    Within a sociocultural context where visual components are becoming increasingly important and new technologies are spreading, geography must adapt to new demands, avoid trivialization in the use of images, and approach the task of creating graphic elements based on an effective and rigorous transmission of knowledge. Considering Augmented Reality as an advantageous technology due to the interactive, self-guided and dynamic nature of its tools, this research seeks to prove its effectiveness and determine the main benefits derived from its application in the representation of landscapes. The methodology takes as its starting point basic graphic materials, most of which are already known in landscape studies. Procedures based on new computer techniques are applied to these materials in order to obtain digital resources compatible with Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. These resources can be integrated into more complex tools that help explain the composition and dynamics of landscapes. Thus, the figures presented in this article are accompanied by a web link and also incorporate a hyperlink, so that by clicking on them, the aforementioned resources are accessed. And those figures with the Observatorio del Territorio (OT) logo are image markers in themselves that allow Augmented Reality content to be opened on devices. The results are obtained by testing various forms of multimedia representation in the context of an R&D project with application in various urban, rural and natural areas of the Principality of Asturias. These are hosted on the server of the Observatorio del Territorio at the University of Oviedo. The conclusions indicate the beneficial use of dynamic sequences (animations, sliders…) for a better understanding of diachronic changes; the interactive third dimension for the representation of complex elements; or the general added value of combining information on media (audio, video, 360º panoramas, etc.) in the understanding of shapes and structures.En un contexto sociocultural donde los componentes visuales cobran cada vez más importancia y las nuevas tecnologías se difunden, la Geografía debe adaptarse a las nuevas exigencias, evitar la banalización en el uso de las imágenes y abordar la tarea de crear elementos gráficos que permitan una transmisión eficaz y rigurosa del conocimiento. Considerando la Realidad Aumentada como una tecnología ventajosa por el carácter interactivo, auto-guiado y dinámico de sus herramientas, esta investigación tiene como objetivo probar su efectividad y mostrar los principales beneficios derivados de su aplicación en la representación del paisaje. La metodología toma como punto de partida materiales gráficos de base, la mayor parte de los cuales son ya conocidos en los estudios del paisaje. Sobre estos materiales se aplican procedimientos basados en nuevas técnicas informáticas que permiten obtener recursos digitales compatibles con la Realidad Aumentada y la Realidad Virtual. Estos recursos pueden ser integrados en herramientas más complejas que ayudan a explicar la composición y dinámica de los paisajes. Así, las figuras presentadas en este artículo se acompañan de un enlace web e incorporan, además, un hipervínculo, de manera que al hacer clic sobre ellas se accede a los recursos mencionados. Aquellas figuras con el logo del Observatorio del Territorio (OT) constituyen marcadores de imagen en sí mismos que permiten abrir contenidos de Realidad Aumentada en los dispositivos. Los resultados provienen de probar varias formas de representación multimedia en el contexto de un proyecto de I+D con aplicación en diversas áreas urbanas, rurales y de dominante natural del Principado de Asturias. Estos se alojan en el servidor del Observatorio del Territorio de la Universidad de Oviedo. Las conclusiones subrayan el uso beneficioso de secuencias dinámicas (animaciones, comparadores de fechas con cortinilla deslizante...) para una mejor comprensión de los cambios; la tercera dimensión interactiva para la representación de elementos complejos; o el valor añadido general de combinar información de soportes (audio, vídeo, panorámicas 360º, etc.) en la comprensión de formas y estructuras.This work was supported by Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad under Grant CSO2017-84623-R. It is part of the results from the research project La Realidad Aumentada como herramienta para la explicación del paisaje. Aplicaciones a la docencia y al turismo

    La Covid-19 en España. Los desafíos geopolíticos de la gobernanza de un problema de salud

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    L’Espagne a été l’un des pays d’Europe les plus touchés par la pandémie. L’article expose les particularités de la décentralisation du système de santé entre les Communautés autonomes et montre comment la chronologie des vagues épidémiques et des décisions prises par les autorités pour y faire face a bousculé cette organisation si bien que l’appareil statistique a été dysfonctionnel au début de la crise. Le gouvernement devait gérer des contradictions géopolitiques complexes, entre le ministère central et les autorités autonomes compétentes, mais aussi avec ses alliés et opposants à la Chambre des députés. La crise sanitaire a révélé les défauts de l’organisation politico-administrative de l’Espagne démocratique, les frictions entre les différentes régions et nationalités qui composent l’État ainsi que celles qui opposent conservateurs et progressistes. Malgré cela, les institutions ont néanmoins fonctionné et su coopérer.Spain was one of the European countries most affected by the pandemic. The article explains the particularities of the decentralization of the health system among the autonomous communities and shows how the chronology of the epidemic waves and the decisions taken by the authorities to deal with them disrupted this organization, which is why the statistical apparatus was dysfunctional at the beginning of the crisis. The government had to manage complex geopolitical contradictions, between the central ministry and the competent autonomous authorities, but also with its allies and opponents in the Chamber of Deputies. The health crisis has revealed the flaws in the political-administrative organization of democratic Spain, the friction between the different regions and nationalities that make up the state and between conservatives and progressives but the institutions worked and have been able to cooperate.España fue uno de los países más afectados por la pandemia en Europa. El artículo expone las particularidades de la descentralización del sistema sanitario entre las Comunidades Autónomas y muestra cómo la cronología de las olas epidémicas y las decisiones tomadas por las autoridades para hacerles frente perturbaron dicha organización hasta el punto de que el aparato estadístico se reveló disfuncional al principio de la crisis. El gobierno debió lidiar con complejas contradicciones geopolíticas, entre el ministerio central y las autoridades autonómicas competentes, pero también con sus aliados y opositores en la Cámara de Diputados. La crisis sanitaria puso de manifiesto los defectos de la organización político-administrativa de la España democrática, las fricciones entre las distintas regiones y nacionalidades que componen el estado, así como las que existen entre conservadores y progresistas. A pesar de ello, las instituciones funcionaron y lograron cooperar

    Modified MSIS chamber as novel gas-liquid separator coupled with photochemical vapor generation of trace mercury with MP-AES detection

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    New hyphenation of continuous flow photochemical vapor generator (PVG) to modified multimode sample introduction system (MSIS) used as gas-liquid separator and microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) was proposed for analysis of trace mercury. The widened MSIS bottom inlet contributes to the increase of the Hg0 mass transfer in the gas-liquid separator allowing the mercury determination by MP-AES. After optimizing the PVG reactor conditions and MP-AES instrument parameters a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.25 ppb was obtained for Hg2+. The applicability of the PVG-MSIS-MP-AES method was subsequently demonstrated for trace mercury analysis in two soil CRMs - ERM-CC135a (Contaminated Brickworks soil) and CRM005 (Sewage Amended soil).This study is financed by the European Union-NextGenerationEU, through the National Recovery and Resilience Plan of the Republic of Bulgaria, project № BG-RRP-2.004-0001-C01

    BARRENETXEA, I. (2023), Memoria, imagen e historia. La Segunda República Española en el cine de ficción. Barcelona: Laertes, 446 pp.

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    The School, Architecture of the Common. Territorial, political and social dimension of school equipment

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    La escuela es indisociable de la dimensión de lo común. Su arquitectura acoge espacios donde se construyen experiencias vitales y de aprendizaje del estar en el mundo en relación con los otros, y constituyen, en sí mismos, una arquitectura de vínculos y relaciones entre las personas con potencial para definir la arquitectura de lo común. El histórico diálogo entre arquitectura y pedagogía integra lo comunitario como eje vertebrador que no es compatible con las distintas formas, pretéritas y contemporáneas, de control y aislamiento del individuo del menor. Sin embargo, la sociedad reincide cíclicamente en el aula como unidad de funcionamiento y confinamiento, mientras su digitalización contemporánea contribuye a la segregación de la escuela de su entorno y comunidad. En la presente investigación acudimos a la reformulación del sistema educativo que se produjo de manos de instituciones gubernamentales mundiales en los años setenta, a través del trabajo de Jean Adler y Margrit I. Kennedy, que inscribieron la escuela comunitaria, inacabada y reprogramable en el tiempo, como proyecto político. Para el abordaje de la complejidad de organizaciones humanas, temporales y espaciales que conlleva esta concepción de escuela, se recurrió a la herramienta proyectual y arquitectónica del diagrama para registrar y relacionar los condicionantes territoriales, tanto materiales como humanos. El diagrama incorpora una variabilidad de forma y estructura infinita, abierta a su construcción en comunidad y que además resulta un dispositivo facilitador para el trabajo entre los distintos agentes que están implicados en la co-creación de la escuela comunitaria. Se declara así la construcción de la escuela comunitaria como una arquitectura para un proyecto político que responda a diversas crisis contemporáneas: crisis de los recursos, de los cuidados, de la salud, del aislamiento social, del medio ambiente y de la natalidad.The Commons dimension is inseparable from school architecture, as the latter provides students with a space to live essential experiences stimulating contacts with others, and thus learning how to relate to the world. A school is in itself an architecture of people’s inter-relationships and links: a true architecture of Commons. The historical dialogue between architecture and pedagogy marks the Commons as the beginning of the incompatibility between the varying past and present ways in which individuals are controlled and isolated. Society cyclically backslides into treating the classroom as a unit of operation and confinement, while today’s digitalisation contributes to segregating the school from its environment and community. The present study addressed the redesigning of the 1970s school system by international governmental institutions based on the efforts of Jean Ader and Margrit I. Kennedy. Their work established the community school as an unfinished political project that is reprogrammable over time. This complex school approach embraces human, temporal, and spatial factors. It requires an architectural instrument designed to record and connect human and material territorial conditions, i.e., a diagram. The diagram incorporates an endless range of forms and structures which encourage the building of community. Moreover, it is a useful tool to collaborate with all agents involved in the building of a community school. For its part, the community school defines itself as a political project architecture that will address various contemporary crises: resources, health and care, social isolation, environmental crisis, and low birth rates

    Taxonomic diversity of Mesoamerican lepidopterans from historical sources

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    Las mariposas han sido representadas como parte del simbolismo mesoamericano prehispánico y posthispánico. Algunos investigadores han estudiado esas representaciones desde la clasificación taxonómica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue sistematizar la diversidad taxonómica de lepidópteros mesoamericanos proporcionada por fuentes históricas. Para ello, i) se realizó una revisión sistematizada de las especies de mariposas reportadas en la literatura, ii) se incluyó una revisión de la nomenclatura actual de las especies, iii) se sugirió un cambio/corrección de la identificación de un taxón. En general, se obtuvo un listado taxonómico de doce lepidópteros en estado adulto y nueve lepidópteros en estado larvario con base en las fuentes de información prehispánicas y posthispánicas. Se sugirió un cambio/corrección de Acentrocneme kallari Scudder, 1875 (Aegiale hesperiaris Walker, 1856) a Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838, basado en conocimientos biológicos, lingüísticos y etnológicos vinculados a la especie propuesta. Este estudio da cuenta del nacimiento de la lepidopterología en la región neotropical.Butterflies have been represented as part of prehispanic and posthispanic Mesoamerican symbolism. Some researchers have studied those representations into a taxonomic classification point of view. The aim of this research was to systematize the taxonomic diversity of Mesoamerican lepidopterans provided by historical sources. For that, i) a systematized review of butterflies’ species reported in literature was performed, ii) a review of current nomenclature of the species was undertaken, and iii) a change/correction of one-taxon identification was suggested. Overall, a taxonomic list of twelve lepidopterans in adult stage and nine lepidopterans in larvae stage was obtained based on prehisphanic and posthispanic sources of information. It was suggested a change/correction from Acentrocneme kallari Scudder, 1875 (Aegiale hesperiaris Walker, 1856) to Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 based on biological, linguistic and ethnological knowledge linked to the proposed species. This study accounts of the birth of lepidopterology in the neotropical region

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