University of Northern Colorado

    Development and Interactions Of Instructor and Student Musical Identities in a University Introductory Music Course For Non-Music Majors

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate student and instructor musical identities in the context of a university music course intended for nonmusic majors. Participants were the instructor of an introductory music course and 16 of her students at a medium-sized university in the western United States. Study of this group of participants and their interactions throughout one 15-week semester led to greater understanding of their roles in music as well as better insight into the many ways in which they formed connections between music and their identity concepts. The research allowed for the development of assertions based on participant perceptions regarding identities and the development and interactions of those perceptions over time. Of the 17 total participants, nine student participants and the one instructor participated in three 1-hour interview sessions each. These interviews were used to generate the majority of the data used in the study. Data were also gathered in the forms of five class observations and various documents related to the class. Analysis of these data sources led to three primary assertions regarding the musical identities of participants, the development of those musical identities, and the ways in which they were related to instructor-student interactions. First, student participants generally viewed interaction with their instructor as having some influences on their musical identities particularly with regard to contextualizing or reinforcing identities. Second, student participants believed that their preexisting and developing musical identities were impactful on the effects which the introductory music course had on their lives. Third, various effects which the instructor had on the musical identities of student participants in this case study were influenced by her own preexisting and developing musical identities. These assertions suggest that instructor and student musical identities can interact in ways which create noticeable changes for all of those involved in introductory music courses for non-music majors. Instructors and leaders involved with similar classes may consider the possibility that neither instructors nor students have direct control over many of the musical identities which could affect instructor-student interaction. Instructors in similar classes should also consider the possibility that demonstrating and maintaining interest in student identities may serve to increase their understanding of their students and contribute to more effective instruction. Additionally, while there may be benefits to presenting unbiased perspectives on course content, instructors of similar courses may wish to consider that allowing students some knowledge of their own identities may have a positive effect on instructor-student interaction. Lastly, the study demonstrates the potential that introductory music courses for non-music majors may have a marked impact on student identities. University leaders and instructors who are considering the development, continuation, or removal of such courses should accept that these classes may be highly impactful on the experiences and identity developments of certain students

    Unbiasedness of Prediction under Linex Loss Function in Autoregressive Moving Average Models

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    The asymmetric loss function is used in a situation where a positive error may be more serious than a negative error of the same magnitude or vice versa. One of the most commonly used asymmetric loss functions is the linex loss. The linex unbiased predictor has been developed and applied to real world applications. This study investigated how the linex unbiased prediction behaves when time series processes, AR(p), MA(q) and ARMA (p,q), parameters are unknown and being estimated, with different levels of variance, forecast step, shape parameter and series length. It started with deriving the predictor for each time series process, computing this predictor, and then discussing its properties. Empirical studies of the behavior of this predictor were investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation. The results of this study showed that, a simpler time series model produced values that were closer to the condition of linex unbiasedness than a complex model. The condition of linex unbiasedness was affected by the variance but not the sign of the linex loss function shape parameter. For any time series model and any condition, as series length increased, the condition of linex unbiasedness values approached zero. When the time series parameters are unknown, the prediction is asymptotically linex unbiased

    Alisha Carlino & Salima Jandali interview

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    The Student Voices collection is a series of oral histories featuring UNC undergraduates discussing their experiences as first-year college students

    Mathematics Teachers\u27 Models of Quantitative Reasoning

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    Mind the Gap: Examination of Elementary Students\u27 Individual Education Program Goals

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    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-method study was to gain an indepth understanding of the processes that special education teachers used to determine reading goals for students with learning disabilities in elementary school. The first phase consisted of a quantitative investigation into existing Individual Education Program (IEP) reading goals for elementary school students with learning disabilities while the second phase consisted of a qualitative investigation involving interviews with special education teachers to explain the findings from the quantitative data analysis. The quantitative analysis included 44 IEP reading goals and the qualitative analysis, conducted through interviews, with four special education teachers. The results from the quantitative phase showed that the proportion of reading goals that met the AIMSweb guidelines in this study was 25.71%. Only 3 of 35 goals were at the mid-average percentile level (between 40th and 50th percentile). Moreover, a significant difference in the mean between current IEP goals and percentiles that were written by special education and the AIMSweb guidelines. Finally, only two goals (6.57%) were sufficient to close the achievement gap and both of these goals were written above the students’ actual grade level. Five main themes emerged from the results of the qualitative phase. The first theme discussed the procedure included conduct assessments, identify student’s level of performance, set up the students’ baseline, write the IEP goals, and collect progress monitoring data. The second theme was a discussion of writing goals at grade level versus instructional level. The third theme emphasized how teachers viewed the rational of writing IEP goals and being realistic of their expectations. The fourth theme discussed current training programs that help teachers to write appropriate goals. A final theme emerged unexpectedly. Although this theme did not answer a specific research question, the information nonetheless provided important information about teachers’ perspective of other factors that affect their students’ achievement. Findings from this study include that teachers may need training in writing grade level goals that include instructional level objectives that meet student needs. Additionally, while the majority of the students in this study did not close the achievement gap in their reading skills, those who did had goals written above grade level. One implication is that when students are assessed below the 40th% percentile of grade level, they may need additional supports at their instructional level to narrow the gap of their foundational skills. A second implication is that when the teachers write goals at or above the students’ grade level, this may contribute to closing the achievement gap. Finally, recommendations for research and practice are provided based on the results of the two phases

    All about life: Analyzing the most effective interventions in a Colorado juvenile diversion program

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    Far too often in our society offenders in the criminal justice system started their criminal careers as juveniles and never found a way to dig themselves out of the black hole that is delinquency. In recent years, across the nation, there has been great effort expended in finding early interventions for juveniles to deter them away from the criminal justice system before they delve into a negative life trajectory. In Colorado multiple jurisdictions utilize diversion programs as a way to keep juvenile offenders out of the formal court system. This research examines one such Juvenile Diversion Program in the Fifth Judicial District of the District Attorney’s Office for a three year period between 2010 and 2012 in the counties of Lake, Summit, and Clear Creek. By looking at which components of the juvenile diversion program are the most effectives at producing successful clients it is hoped that improved and targeted interventions for juveniles are able to more effectively help these juveniles stay out of the system before they cannot get back out

    The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System – Tower Test Resilience to Response Bias

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    Neuropsychological tools are used to gain more accurate insight about an individual’s level of functioning (cognitive, behavioral, executive, etc.), and to make more exact diagnoses; therefore, valid neuropsychological tools are necessary for precise evaluation. Valid neuropsychological assessment relies upon the individual putting forth maximum effort during testing. While the literature is rich when describing methods of detecting incomplete effort, it is sparse when identifying instruments resistant to such response bias. The goal of this study was to determine whether or not effort affects performance on the D-KEFS Tower Test by comparing the results with the Test of Memory Malingering (a neuropsychological assessment designed to measure effort). Thirty-nine neurologically intact college students from a medium sized Rocky Mountain university introductory subject pool were asked to participate. The participants in the experimental group were given a vignette explaining that they had been in a car accident. The participants were then asked to pretend that they had suffered a brain injury and were having memory problems. The participants in the control group were asked to do their best. A blind examiner administered the D-KEFS Tower Test and The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) to both groups. Data analysis shows that there was a significant difference between the two groups’ performance on the TOMM, but no significant difference between the scores on the Tower Test. These results suggest that the D-KEFS Tower Test is relatively resilient to incomplete effort
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