University of Cádiz

Repositorio de Objetos de Docencia e Investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz
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    21774 research outputs found

    Co-fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae for the production of a probiotic beer: Survival and sensory and analytical characterization

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    The effects of boiling stage hopping or dry hopping methods; the use of Bobek or Crystal hop varieties; and the usage of just Sacharomyces cerevisiae yeasts or co-fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria on the production of a probiotic beer have been studied. Only the cell viability levels registered for Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria in those beers produced by dry hopping, after an initial inoculation of 10 million cells per mL in both beers hopped during the boiling stage and in dry-hopped beers, were higher than those generally considered as minimum to provide health promoting benefits. With regard to polyphenols, higher concentrations were generally obtained in the beers produced by co-inoculation, whereas with respect to volatile compounds, co-inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum and the employment of the dry hopping method with Bobek hops resulted in the beers with the highest contents. The sensory profile of the beers was clearly influenced by the hopping method, so that dry-hopped beers were awarded significantly higher scores with respect to certain fruity (stone fruit and tropical fruit, p < 0.05) and floral descriptors (p < 0.05), while they were ranked at a lower level regarding their cereal and toasted descriptors. The hopping method was the most influential on the composition and sensory properties of the final beers whereas the co-fermentation did not substantially modify any of them

    Traditional Knowledge and Biocultural Heritage about Medicinal Plants in a European Transboundary Area (La Raya: Extremadura, Spain—Alentejo, Portugal): Transdisciplinary Research for Curriculum Design in Health Sciences

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    This article has been developed within the project “A utilidade do conhecimento tradicional das Plantas Medicinais em Saúde Pública” within the scope of the Instituto Politécnico de Portalegre (IPP), Escola Superior de Saúde. Project approved by Conselho Técnico-científico of the IPP and Unidade de Investigação do IPP-VALORIZA. Research licenses during the 2021–2022, 2022–2023, and 2023–2024 courses (Free Movers International program). This research received no external funding. Article Processing Charges: IOAP (University of Cadiz). Logistical support received in part by the History of Science Area, HUM-812 PAIDI Research Group of the University of Cadiz and GR18077 SECTI Research Group of the University of Extremadura.Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants, and the biocultural heritage derived from them, can be a useful tool for curricular design in health sciences. Research on this topic oriented toward university students has an interesting potential from a multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary treatment. This field allows for establishing relationships between socioeconomic and environmental problems and the health and well-being of people from the perspective of the intangible heritage of rural communities. On the other hand, traditional knowledge draws from very diverse sources such as empirical, magical, and religious components, primitive medicines, and even from academic medicine itself when it ceases to be scientific. Methodological triangulation is used in terms of data (times, spaces, and people), as well as researchers from different areas of knowledge integrating approaches with an interpretive purpose. Located in a European transboundary territory, the study area contains the mountain ranges of Alor (Spain) and São Mamede (Portugal), two cross-border areas where key informants have been interviewed. The observation unit is people who perform traditional practices to gather natural products, and other randomly selected informants. The study was completed with information collected from the undergraduates of the Escola Superior de Saúde de Portalegre (Portugal). The purpose of this work was to highlight the application of traditional knowledge based on medicinal plants in university studies of health sciences. Based on the results obtained and an epistemological discussion, we propose an educational intervention to broaden the professional mindset from a biocultural perspective. Our proposal directs the student’s gaze toward the investigation of medical history and biocultural heritage to understand the determinants of health and to respect the idiosyncrasies of their communities

    The effect of microstructure and film composition on the mechanical properties of linear antenna CVD diamond thin films

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    This study reports the impact of film microstructure and composition on the Young's modulus and residual stress in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films (≈250nm thick) grown on silicon substrates using a linear antenna microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Combining laser acoustic wave spectroscopy to determine the elastic properties with simple wafer curvature measurements, a straightforward method to determine the intrinsic stress in NCD films is presented. Two deposition parameters are varied: (1) the substrate temperature from 400 °C to 900 °C, and (2) the [P]/[C] ratio from 0 ppm to 8090 ppm in the H2/CH4/CO2/PH3 diamond CVD plasma. The introduction of PH3 induces a transition in the morphology of the diamond film, shifting from NCD with larger grains to ultra-NCD with a smaller grain size, concurrently resulting in a decrease in Young's modulus. Results show that the highest Young's modulus of (1130±50) GPa for the undoped NCD deposited at 800 °C is comparable to single crystal diamond, indicating that NCD with excellent mechanical properties is achievable with our process for thin diamond films. Based on the film stress results, we propose the origins of tensile intrinsic stress in the diamond films. In NCD, the tensile intrinsic stress is attributed to larger grain size, while in ultra-NCD films the tensile intrinsic stress is due to grain boundaries and impurities

    Towards digital competence from the conception of students in language instruction. A study within the Master's Degree in Teaching in Andalusia

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    The use of smart mobile devices and the integration of social networks into the educational setting is a reality that has been widely studied by the research community. Their integration into the educational environment has increased following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the need to explore the conceptions of future educators regarding the integration of these technologies in the classroom after having experienced a health crisis, this study aims to describe the basic components of the conceptions of teacher trainees with regard to the usefulness of smartphones and social media in language teaching in the master’s degree in teaching. During the 2022-2023 academic year, a total of 139 registered students in the Spanish language and literature and foreign languages specialties as part of the master’s degree in teaching in the Andalusian Unified District (Distrito Único Andaluz, DUA) participated in this study. The respondents completed the Usefulness of the Social Media and Smartphones for Educational Action questionnaire (known as the CURSAE, according to its Spanish initials). The results show a trend toward positively viewing the use of smartphones and the social media in the classroom and as an element to establish communication with the various educational agents. The gender variable showed no statistically significant differences, as opposed to age and the specialization studied, which did reveal such differences. The use of these technologies was more widely accepted by younger students and those specializing in Spanish language and literature. These results are extremely useful for improving the initial training of secondary education and baccalaureate teachers

    Apuntes del estudio ecográfico de la fosa posterior

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    El estudio ecográfico de la fosa posterior requiere de una sistemática apropiada y supone un reto para el neonatólogo o el radiólogo que realiza las ecografías en la Unidad de Neonatología. Este documento pretende ser una ayuda para la incoporación de la valoración de la fosa posterior en la ecografía transfontanelar rutinaria

    Desarrollo y optimización de técnicas de extracción y análisis de compuestos con actividad biológica en espárragos (Asparagus officinalis L.)

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    Varios estudios han evidenciado la composición en compuestos bioactivos del espárrago, los cuales presentan numerosas propiedades beneficiosas para el correcto funcionamiento del organismo. Estos beneficios se deben, a los metabolitos secundarios sintetizados por la planta, que son capaces de actuar en numerosos procesos antiinflamatorios, antibacterianos o anticancerígenos. Además, el espárrago es una planta tolerante al frío, la sequía y a la sal, siendo económicamente viable el cultivo en zonas con poca precipitación anual y ligeramente salinas, sin perder el rendimiento. Así pues, en este Trabajo de Fin de Máster se ha identificado y cuantificado 5 compuestos de interés presentes en el espárrago, además de diversas muestras reales de espárragos silvestres en la provincia de Cádiz. En este sentido, en primer lugar, se identificaron los compuestos bioactivos presentes en el espárrago, empleando la cromatografía líquida de ultra alta resolución acoplada a un espectrómetro de masas con cuadrupolo (UHPLC-QDa). Para la cuantificación de los compuestos bioactivos identificados se utilizó la cromatografía líquida de ultra alta resolución acoplada a un detector de diodos (UHPLC-DAD). Por otro lado, se evaluó la actividad antioxidante del extracto, por lo cual, se utilizaron los métodos espectrofotométricos del DPPH y del ABTS A continuación, se llevó a cabo la optimización de un método de extracción asistida por ultrasonidos (UAE) aplicando un diseño de experimentos de superficie de respuesta tipo Box-Behnken (BBD) con cinco variables independientes (%EtOH, temperatura, amplitud, ciclo y ratio) y dos variables de respuesta (fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidantes). Se determinó un método de extracción simultanea para las dos variables de respuestas, potenciando el valor añadido del extracto obtenido. Posteriormente, se comprobó la precisión del método desarrollado mediante estudios de repetibilidad y precisión intermedia, obteniendo coeficientes de variación inferiores al 5%. Por último, se analizaron 31 muestras reales de la provincia de Cádiz, donde se ha estudiado tanto las diferentes partes de la planta (yema, zona media y tallo), como la influencia del color (verde y morado)

    Laser Engineering Nanocarbon Phases within Diamond for Science and Electronics

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    Diamond, as the densest allotrope of carbon, displays a range of exemplary material properties that are attractive from a device perspective. Despite diamond displaying high carbon−carbon bond strength, ultrashort (femtosecond) pulse laser radiation can provide sufficient energy for highly localized internal breakdown of the diamond lattice. The less-dense carbon structures generated on lattice breakdown are subject to significant pressure from the surrounding diamond matrix, leading to highly unusual formation conditions. By tailoring the laser dose delivered to the diamond, it is shown that it is possible to create continuously modified internal tracks with varying electrical conduction properties. In addition to the widely reported conducting tracks, conditions leading to semiconducting and insulating written tracks have been identified. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is used to visualize the structural transformations taking place and provide insight into the different conduction regimes. The HRTEM reveals a highly diverse range of nanocarbon structures are generated by the laser irradiation, including many signatures for different so-called diaphite complexes, which have been seen in meteorite samples and seem to mediate the laser-induced breakdown of the diamond. This work offers insight into possible formation methods for the diamond and related nanocarbon phases found in meteorites

    Agronomic and phytotoxicity test with biosolids from anaerobic CO- DIGESTION with temperature and micro-organism phase separation, based on sewage sludge, vinasse and poultry manure

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    This study deals with energy and agronomic valorisation by anaerobic co-digestion with temperature and microorganism phase separation of sewage sludge, vinasse and poultry manure, with the aim of achieving an integral waste management, obtaining bioenergy and biofertilizer that returns nutrients to the soil in a natural way. The yields obtained were 40 mL H2/gVS and 391 mLCH4/gVS. The resulting effluent showed more than 98% removal of E. coli and total coliforms, as well as total removal of Salmonella. The results obtained in the phytotoxicity tests showed that all the proportions studied had phytostimulant and phytonutrient properties, with 20% having the highest germination index (GI) with mean values of 145.30%. Finally, the agronomic trial carried out with strawberry crops (Fragaria sp.) showed that the addition of this biosolid has fertilising properties and can be used as an agronomic amendment, with an increase of 145% in fresh weight and 102.5% in dry weight, and fruit production doubled with respect to the control. The ANOVA statistical study corroborated that there were significant differences in crop growth when applying different proportions of biofertilizer in the fertilizer. Therefore, these results show that this technology is promising and would contribute environmentally, socially and economically to the transfer towards a circular economy model.Este estudio aborda la valorización energética y agronómica mediante codigestión anaeróbica con temperatura y separación de fases de microorganismos de lodos de depuradora, vinazas y gallinazas, con el objetivo de conseguir una gestión integral de residuos, obteniendo bioenergía y biofertilizante que devuelva nutrientes al suelo de forma Manera natural. Los rendimientos obtenidos fueron 40 mL H2/gVS y 391 mLCH4/gVS. El efluente resultante mostró más del 98% de eliminación de E. coli y coliformes totales, así como una eliminación total de Salmonella. Los resultados obtenidos en las pruebas de fitotoxicidad mostraron que todas las proporciones estudiadas tenían propiedades fitoestimulantes y fitonutrientes, siendo el 20% el de mayor índice de germinación (IG) con valores medios de 145,30%. Finalmente, el ensayo agronómico realizado con cultivos de fresa (Fragaria sp.) demostró que la adición de este biosólido tiene propiedades fertilizantes y puede ser utilizado como enmienda agronómica, con un aumento del 145% en peso fresco y del 102,5% en peso seco. y la producción de frutos se duplicó respecto al testigo. El estudio estadístico ANOVA corroboró que existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento del cultivo al aplicar diferentes proporciones de biofertilizante en el fertilizante. Por tanto, estos resultados muestran que esta tecnología es prometedora y contribuiría ambiental, social y económicamente a la transferencia hacia un modelo de economía circular.Soporte papel y electrónico de un articulo científico de 8 Páginas

    R&D&I efficiency AS one OF the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) in Europe: Application of a dynamic model with network structure and Cumulative Divisional Malmquist index (CDMI)

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    In European countries the measurement of the efficiency of Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&I) is a problematic issue for politicians and the general population. For this reason, the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) signed by UN Member States in 2015 includes SDG 9 for Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess whether European countries efficiently manage their R&D&I resources. To meet this objective, the output-oriented Dynamic DEA with Network structure based on SBM framework (DNSBM) is used under constant returns in order to first, verify how European countries are positioned in their contribution to realizing SDG 9, considering the dynamic relationships between the resources allocated to R&D&I and their results; and, second, define the long-term relationships between them by applying the Cumulative Divisional Malmquist Index (CDMI) model. This work contributes to the advancement of the research via: (1) development of a framework for the analysis of R&D&I efficiency based on a dynamic network optimization model, where the analyzed periods present interdependence based on the relationships between the inputs and outputs of the R&D&I of SDG 9 and (2) development of a new conceptual model to measure efficiency in the management of R&D&I in a sample of European countries.16 página

    La narrativa del político-influencer y su fandom. El caso de Isabel Díaz Ayuso y los ayusers en Instagram

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    The influence of social media culture on political communication has led to the emergence of the influencer-politician narrative as the adaptation of the celebrity-politician to the medium. This paper analyses the communication of the politician Isabel Díaz Ayuso and her fandom (ayusers) on Instagram during a non-electoral period (June 2021-June 2022). To this end, a quantitative and qualitative content analysis was carried out on Díaz Ayuso’s official profile and the five most followed fandom accounts. The results show that Díaz Ayuso uses the same advertising and commercial strategies as influencers. Also, the presence of brands and celebrities was greater than that of political representatives or information about their own government initiatives in her posts. The decision to show personal and commercial content, following the logic of the politician’s humanisation, is rewarded by her followers showing more engagement towards these themes. At the same time, her fandom focuses its publications on praising Díaz Ayuso’s physical attractiveness and the political attack on the left (regional and national). Thus, Díaz Ayuso and the ayusers’ communication work in a complementary way on Instagram: the politician is always active and positive, in accordance with the logic of the medium and the cultural ideas associated with the female gender, while her fandom incorporates political and attacking content. This research advances knowledge about the narratives of humanisation of the politician in social media, as well as the growing importance of fandom within a context of digital permanent campaigning.20 páginas


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