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    Understanding the Capacity Development of Faculty Development Programs: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

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    Background: Faculty development programs can bring about both individual and organizational capacity development by enhancing individuals' attitudes, values, and skillsto enable them to implement organizational change. Understanding how faculty development programs produce capacity development, and the influencing factors, requires further understanding. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of the participants of a faculty development program about the capacity development features of the program and the influencing factors.Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. Faculty members were surveyed about their perspectives on capacity development of faculty development. Subsequently, 22 interviews were conducted with the respondents to deepen understanding of the survey results. Interview transcripts underwent conventional content analysis. Results: A total of 203 completed the questionnaire. Most of the faculty highly agreed that the faculty development programs had produced capacity development. The combined data identified (a) "quality of faculty development programs", underscoring the significance of robust and comprehensive initiatives, (b) "development in instruction", emphasizing the importance of continuous improvement in pedagogical approaches (c) "development in professionalism", highlighting the necessity for cultivating a culture of professionalism among faculty members, (d) "development in attitude towards education", emphasizing the role of mindset in fostering effective teaching practices, and (e) "supporting faculty development programs", with fostering organizational growth and innovation. Important barriers and facilitators of the capacity development process included several organizational, interpersonal, and individual factors. Conclusion: The study identified specific features of the capacity development process in the context of a faculty development program and highlighted the importance of these programs in producing changes in both individuals and within the wider organizational system. Several factors that enabled and constrained the capacity development process were also identified. The findings of the study can inform future implementation of faculty development programs for capacity development. <br/

    Social Science as a Kind of Writing

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    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to argue for the value of (1) social science as part of the intellectual activity of writing (rather than righting) and (2) the practice of fi ction to that intellectual activity. Writing is a mode of representation that eludes our complete and objective knowledge and always remains partial and temporary. While righting, in contrast, is concerned with the absolute truth and the revelation of the right answer. This paper argues that writing is a more productive, creative, and necessary way of engaging with reality than righting, and that it can offer insights and perspectives for both theory and praxis. Drawing on Stephen King’s view on writing fiction, this paper will also argue that fiction constitutes a kind of writing and employs a particular form of truth that is conceived as a relation between representation and reality. The paper will conclude by suggesting the need for criminologists—and social scientists more generally—to adopt the perspective of writing to gain a better understanding of the phenomena with which they are concerned

    Use of selective gut decontamination in critically ill children:PICnIC a pilot RCT and mixed-methods study

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    Background: Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. In adults, data suggest the use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract may reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract has not been evaluated in the paediatric intensive care unit population. Objectives: To determine the feasibility of conducting a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial in critically ill children comparing selective decontamination of the digestive tract with standard infection control. Design: Parallel-group pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial with an integrated mixed-methods study. Setting: Six paediatric intensive care units in England. Participants: Children (&gt; 37 weeks corrected gestational age, up to 16 years) requiring mechanical ventilation expected to last for at least 48 hours were eligible for the PICnIC pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial. During the ecology periods, all children admitted to the paediatric intensive care units were eligible. Parents/legal guardians of recruited patients and healthcare professionals working in paediatric intensive care units were eligible for inclusion in the mixed-methods study. Interventions: The interventions in the PICnIC pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial included administration of selective decontamination of the digestive tract as oro-pharyngeal paste and as a suspension given by enteric tube during the period of mechanical ventilation. Main outcome measures: The decision as to whether a definitive cluster-randomised controlled trial is feasible is based on multiple outcomes, including (but not limited to): (1) willingness and ability to recruit eligible patients; (2) adherence to the selective decontamination of the digestive tract intervention; (3) acceptability of the definitive cluster-randomised controlled trial; (4) estimation of recruitment rate; and (5) understanding of potential clinical and ecological outcome measures. Results: A total of 368 children (85% of all those who were eligible) were enrolled in the PICnIC pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial across six paediatric intensive care units: 207 in the baseline phase (Period One) and 161 in the intervention period (Period Two). In sites delivering selective decontamination of the digestive tract, the majority (98%) of children received at least one dose of selective decontamination of the digestive tract, and of these, 68% commenced within the first 6 hours. Consent for the collection of additional swabs was low (44%), though data completeness for potential outcomes, including microbiology data from routine clinical swab testing, was excellent. Recruited children were representative of the wider paediatric intensive care unit population. Overall, 3.6 children/site/week were recruited compared with the potential recruitment rate for a definitive cluster-randomised controlled trial of 3 children/site/week, based on data from all UK paediatric intensive care units. The proposed trial, including consent and selective decontamination of the digestive tract, was acceptable to parents and staff with adaptations, including training to improve consent and communication, and adaptations to the administration protocol for the paste and ecology monitoring. Clinical outcomes that were considered important included duration of organ failure and hospital stay, healthcare-acquired infections and survival. Limitations: The delivery of the pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to slow set-up of sites, and a lack of face-to face training. Conclusions: PICnIC’s findings indicate that a definitive cluster-randomised controlled trial in selective decontamination of the digestive tract in paediatric intensive care units is feasible with the inclusion modifications, which would need to be included in a definitive cluster-randomised controlled trial to ensure that the efficiency of trial processes is maximised.</p

    I do like to be beside the seaside

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    The Effects of Covid19 on Public and Paratransit Drivers in Developing Countries

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    IntroductionPublic and paratransit services in low- and middle-income countries were severely hit by COVID-19 and related mitigation measures. This has affected both passengers and service providers. While there is now an abundance of studies investigating the effects on passengers, the literature on the impacts of the pandemic on drivers or service providers is scarce. As such, this study investigates the implications of the pandemic for commercial passenger vehicle drivers in the global south taking one South Asian country (Bangladesh) and one African country (Nigeria) as case study countries.MethodsThe study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) qualitative approach to explore and explicate the subjective experiences of drivers using semi-structured interviews. Using purposive sampling technique, thirty participants were recruited between March and April 2021. The recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo software.ResultsThe analyses identify key challenges faced by drivers into five distinct themes including personal and social, physical, and operational, health and wellbeing, governance and regulation, and bad enforcement and policing related challenges. Participants reported immense hardship due to the bans on operations and lack of passengers, eliminating or reducing their only opportunities for earning a livelihood. There was a consensus among participants that they were abandoned by their governments during the pandemic and were left with no other choice than to work in risky situations. They either had to use the little savings they had or borrow money to feed their families, further reducing their opportunities for the future. Apart from facing reduced income, debt crisis, and unsustainable workload challenges, drivers reported mental health consequences of the pandemic including depression, suffering anxiety, fear of risk infection and helplessness.ConclusionsThis research concludes the impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak and its following containment measures on the health and wellbeing, personal and working lives of public and paratransit drivers in developing countries are substantial. The pandemic has seriously affected transport workers, which also amplified earlier inequalities. Development of non-discriminatory policies, fair and stringent enforcement, and provision of targeted financial support along with awareness raising campaigns are essential to reduce the effect pandemic had on drivers.<br/

    The Effects of Astaxanthin on Cognitive Function and Neurodegeneration in Humans: A Critical Review

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    Oxidative stress is a key contributing factor in neurodegeneration, cognitive ageing, cognitive decline, and diminished cognitive longevity. Issues stemming from oxidative stress both in relation to cognition and other areas, such as inflammation, skin health, eye health, and general recovery, have been shown to benefit greatly from antioxidant use. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, which has been outlined to be beneficial for cognitive function both in vitro and in vivo. Given the aforementioned promising effects, research into astaxanthin with a focus on cognitive function has recently been extended to human tissue and human populations. The present critical review explores the effects of astaxanthin on cognitive function and neurodegeneration within human populations and samples with the aim of deciphering the merit and credibility of the research findings and subsequently their potential as a basis for therapeutic use. Implications, limitations, and areas for future research development are also discussed. Key findings include the positive impacts of astaxanthin in relation to improving cognitive function, facilitating neuroprotection, and slowing neurodegeneration within given contexts

    The Vicious Circle of Age Shame:Stigma and Vulnerability

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    Throughout the lifespan of the average human, shame, guilt, and pride tend to consistently relate to psychological well-being, albeit much of the literature debates the prospect of shame decreasing with maturity. As people age, they become more prone to experiencing psychologically adaptive self-conscious emotions that contribute to their personality development and eventual self-acceptance. However, this is often not the case when an individual succumbs to the decline of physical and/or mental functioning. The experience and expression of shame, as well as the individual or collective handling of shame, depends in a special way on cultural factors. For this reason, the aim of this chapter is to critically examine how cultural values and norms can play a significant role in the development and processing of feelings of shame, especially in older people. It draws on autoethnography to present a critical self-reflexive narrative to explore how such emotions influence the lives of individuals and those around them, from adolescence to old age. In doing so, the chapter synthesizes the experiences of two culturally varying individuals and their understanding of expressions of shame. The methodological approach illustrates how two narratives can cross diverse cultural boundaries and highlight the impact that feelings of shame can have on patriarchal and matriarchal values. The narratives also reveal gender differences within close familial dynamics and within the general social engagements of older people

    Addressing the relationship between gambling and professional football in England: a response to Smith et al. ‘Gambling, sports psychiatry, and disciplinary sanctions in English professional football’ [soccer &amp; society 25, no. 1 (2024): 140–143]

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    Our commentary article continues the discussion recently initiated by Smith et al. on the relationship between gambling and professional football in England. In their vital contribution to Soccer and Society, they argue that a reconsideration of the relationship between football and gambling is required, highlighting the importance of prevention schemes of gambling harms for athletes, and maintaining the integrity of football. We respond by arguing that a reconsideration of the relationship between English football and gambling must go further to reduce the risk of harms to all stakeholders. The expansive, neo-liberal nature of the gambling market has rendered gambling omnipresent within English football, with the volume of gambling-related marketing in the game giving rise to concerns of harms which could be experienced by stakeholders. A full reconsideration of the harmful intersections between football and gambling would involve a significant change in regulation at societal level, thus protecting stakeholders and maintaining integrity

    A qualitative exploration of the experiences of pregnant women living with obesity and accessing antenatal care

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    Women are advised to optimise weight before pregnancy. However, many are either already living with overweight or obesity prior to becoming pregnant, increasing the risks for adverse outcomes. Health care professionals (HCP) are responsible for advising women of risks throughout and following pregnancy. However, midwives find broaching the conversation around maternal obesity difficult. This difficulty may be due to insufficient knowledge regarding the management of obesity during pregnancy or because they do not wish to offend. This study explored the experiences of accessing antenatal care in pregnant women living with obesity. Seventeen women completed a semi-structuredinterview. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Four themes were developed:1) antenatal care is inconsistent, 2)additional support is needed, 3) women feel judged about their weight, and 4) weight cycling is highly prevalent. Findings suggest that pregnant women living with obesity often experience weight bias from HCPs, feel judged because of their weight and are left feeling confused andoverlooked. Women reported inconsistencies in advice and care offered,and acknowledged a lack of continuity of care throughout pregnancy. We call for an urgent need for further multidisciplinary training to address the concerns, experiences and needs of pregnant women living with obesity

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