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    3189 research outputs found

    Personal Reflections on Science Communication and Sharing Retrieval Practice Research with Teachers

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    Although research on retrieval practice—the process of bringing previously learned information to mind via quizzes, flashcards, etc.—dates back to the late 1800’s, it took nearly 100 years to gain popularity among educators as a teaching strategy. This was due, in part, to the limited availability of practical recommendations on how to use retrieval practice to improve learning. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion in science communication of retrieval practice research in many forms, including books, blogs, podcasts, and engagement on social media. As one indication of growing interest among the general public, in 2019 the phrase “retrieval practice” became more frequently searched than “testing effect” on Google. In this commentary, I reflect on my personal experience in the science communication of retrieval practice research, with a specific focus on a website (, an email newsletter, and brief practice guides I developed for teachers over the previous decade. We currently lack empirical measurement of the impact of science communication on classroom implementation, Preprint thus I offer five recommendations for translating research based on my own trials and errors. Looking forward to the next 100 years, I am optimistic that retrieval practice will be common knowledge as a valuable learning strategy and that teachers will leverage it to increase student achievement

    The Lived Expereines of Adult Musicians with Dyscalculia: Implications with Practice in K-12 Settings

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    Effects of music therapy on pain relief during fundus screening in infants: Randomized controlled clinical trial

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    BACKGROUND: To determine the efficacy of music therapy on pain relief during fundus screening in infants. METHODS: The sample consisted of infants aged 0 to 3 months who required fundus screening. Infants were randomized to fast music, slow music, and control groups. All groups underwent fundus screening under topical anesthesia. Music therapy was provided to the music groups prior to, during, and after the operation. The patient\u27s heart rate (HR), transcutaneous oxygen saturation, and crying decibel were measured. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale was used for pain measurement. RESULTS: A total of 300 subjects\u27 data were collected. The quantitative analysis revealed that in both music groups, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and satisfaction levels increased while pain scores decreased (P \u3c .05). The slow music group\u27s HR was shown to have significantly decreased (P \u3c .05). CONCLUSION: Music therapy can effectively reduce pain and crying, and increase blood oxygen saturation during fundus examination of infants. Music with a rhythm of 60 to 80 beats per minute can decrease HR. Music therapy must be remembered to increase infants\u27 comfort during fundus examination

    The effect of music therapy on cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer\u27s disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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    BACKGROUND: The use of music interventions as a non-pharmacological therapy to improve cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) patients has gained popularity in recent years, but the evidence for their effectiveness remains inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the evidence of the effect of music therapy (alone or in combination with pharmacological therapies) on cognitive functions in AD patients compared to those without the intervention. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and HINARI for papers published from 1 January 2012 to 25 June 2022. All randomized controlled trials that compared music therapy with standard care or other non-musical intervention and evaluation of cognitive functions are included. Cognitive outcomes included: global cognition, memory, language, speed of information processing, verbal fluency, and attention. Quality assessment and narrative synthesis of the studies were performed. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies out of 144 met the inclusion criteria (689 participants, mean age range 60.47-87.1). Of the total studies, 4 were conducted in Europe (2 in France, 2 in Spain), 3 in Asia (2 in China, 1 in Japan), and 1 in the USA. Quality assessment of the retrieved studies revealed that 6 out of 8 studies were of high quality. The results showed that compared to different control groups, there is an improvement in cognitive functions after music therapy application. A greater effect was shown when patients are involved in the music making when using active music intervention (AMI). CONCLUSION: The results of this review highlight the potential benefits of music therapy as a complementary treatment option for individuals with AD and the importance of continued investigation in this field. More research is needed to fully understand the effects of music therapy, to determine the optimal intervention strategy, and to assess the long-term effects of music therapy on cognitive functions

    Investigating the impact of music therapy on two in-patient psychiatric wards for people living with dementia: Retrospective observational study

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    Background: Music therapy can lift mood and reduce agitation for people living with dementia (PwD) in community and residential care settings, potentially reducing the prevalence of distress behaviours. However, less is known about the impact of music therapy on in-patient psychiatric wards for PwD. Aims: To investigate the impact of music therapy on two in-patient psychiatric wards for PwD. Method: A mixed-methods design was used. Statistical analysis was conducted on incidents involving behaviours reported as ‘disruptive and aggressive’ in 2020, when music therapy delivery varied because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured interviews conducted online with three music therapists and eight ward-based staff were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Quantitative findings showed a significant reduction in the frequency of behaviours reported as disruptive and aggressive on days with in-person music therapy (every 14 days) than on the same weekday with no or online music therapy (every 3.3 or 3.1 days, respectively). Qualitative findings support this, with music therapy reported by music therapists and staff members to be accessible and meaningful, lifting mood and reducing agitation, with benefits potentially lasting throughout the day and affecting the ward environment. Conclusions: We identified a significant reduction in the occurrence of distress behaviours on days with in-person music therapy when compared with no music therapy. Music therapy was reported to be a valuable intervention, supporting patient mood and reducing agitation. Interventional studies are needed to investigate the impact of music therapy and its optimum mode of delivery. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved

    Exploring Influencing Factors of Anxiety Improvement Following Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy in Young Adults with Cancer

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    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore physiological, psychological, and situational influencing factors that may affect the impact of a mindfulness-music therapy intervention on anxiety severity in young adults receiving cancer treatment. Young adults receiving cancer treatment for ≥ eight weeks were recruited from adult and pediatric oncology outpatient centers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Participants were asked to attend up to four, in-person (offered virtually via Zoom video conference after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic) 45-min mindfulness-based music therapy sessions over twelve weeks with a board-certified music therapist. Participants completed questionnaires about anxiety, stress, and other cancer treatment-related outcomes before and after participating in the intervention. Changes in anxiety (i.e., PROMIS Anxiety 4a) over time were compared among baseline physiological (e.g., age or sex), psychological (e.g., stress), and situational influencing (i.e., intervention delivery format) factors using Wilcoxon-rank sum tests. Thirty-one of the 37 enrolled participants completed the baseline and post-intervention measures and were eligible for inclusion in the secondary analysis. Results revealed that higher baseline physical functioning (median change = −6.65), anxiety (median change=-5.65), fatigue (median change = −5.6), sleep disturbance (median change = −5.6), female sex (median change = −5.15), or virtual intervention delivery (median change = −4.65) were potential physiological, psychological, or situational influencing factors associated with anxiety improvement following mindfulness-based music therapy. Additional investigation into physiological, psychological, or situational influencing factors associated with anxiety response will help to tailor the design of future mindfulness-music therapy interventions to decrease psychological distress and address the unique psychosocial concerns among young adults receiving cancer treatment. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT0370922

    Polyphonic perspectives: A focus group study of interprofessional staff’s perceptions of music therapy at an inpatient unit for children in mental health care

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    Purpose: In an inpatient unit for children in mental health care, a variety of services are provided through interprofessional collaborations. Music therapy is a relatively recent proposition in this context, but there is increasing acceptance for music therapy as a therapeutic method. However, there is limited knowledge about music therapy in this field, and this study aims to address this research gap. Method: Through focus group interviews with staff at an inpatient unit in mental health care for children, this article explores interprofessional perspectives of music therapy. A thematic analysis with an inductive approach informed by constructivist grounded theory was used in the analysis of the interviews. Findings: Several dimensions were involved in the findings, concerning the children and the interprofessional collaboration. The two main categories that emerged were: \u27What music therapy offers the children\u27 and \u27What music therapy contributes to the interprofessional understanding of the children\u27. Conclusion: The interprofessional perspectives of music therapy revealed potentials for emotion regulation, and experience of identity and freedom for the children. As part of the integrated services, music therapy provided a new perspective of the child and enhanced relationship between the child and the health services. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved

    Working 9 to 5: A Women\u27s Movement, a Labor Union, and the Iconic Movie

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    Librarian, Judy Pinnolis, interviews Ellen Cassedy, author and co-founder of 9to5, National Association of Working Women. Video editing by Stacey Snyder.

    Conference Report: Reassessing Haydn’s Sacred Music, 12–14 June 2023, Eisenstadt, Austria

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    A conference entitled Reassessing Haydn\u27s Sacred Music took place in Eisenstadt 12-14 June, 2023. Historical, political, and religious contexts, reception, compositional and religous influences upon Haydn, and stylistic characteristics of specific works were all discussed

    A Cluster-Randomized Comparison of Music Therapy Interventions as Measured by Craving and Commitment in Adults on a Detoxification Unit

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    Background: Music therapy can positively impact craving, treatment readiness, and motivation in adults with substance use disorder (SUD) on a detoxification unit. However, the existing research is primarily comprised of studies with a single pre- or posttest and there is a need for randomized controlled studies that compare within-session changes resultant of various music therapy interventions to determine best practice. Objective: The purpose of this single-session study was to compare within-session changes between group motivational and educational songwriting (MESW) and group recreational music therapy (RMT) on craving and commitment to sobriety in adults with SUD on a detoxification unit. Method: Participants (N = 100) were cluster-randomized to group MESW or group RMT conditions and completed established psychometric instruments measuring craving and commitment to sobriety at pre- and posttest. Results: Within-group changes were significant in all measures, indicating that music therapy was effective within the temporal parameters of a single session. Although between-group differences were not significant, mean within-session improvements in expectancy, compulsivity, emotionality, total craving, and commitment to sobriety were larger in the MESW condition than the RMT condition. Additionally, the MESW group tended to have slightly more favorable posttest scores than the RMT group in all measures. Conclusion: Despite the temporal limitations of single-session therapy common on detoxification units, both MESW and RMT protocols resulted in significant within-session changes in measures of craving and commitment to sobriety. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided


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