Objective: This study is aimed to compare two strategies of ART combination that are used for HIV-infected adult males in Yemen. Methods: This study was conducted in Al-Jumhori hospital-Sana’a-Yemen. Eighty six patients with positive HIV infection were treated with the first strategy and another forty two patients age (22-65 years) were treated with the second strategy. Blood samples were collected and body weight was measured for the all patients before intake of ART combination and then after fifteen months and compared. Results: There was significant increase in the mean CD4 cell count in the second strategy (Lamivudine 150mg, Zidovudine 300mg and Nevirapine 200mg) from 173.4±15.20 to 250.2±25.0 (cells/mm3) (44.3%). Also there was significant increase in body weight from 54.29±1.08 to 56.72±1.13 kg (4.5%) compared with the first strategy (Lamivudine 150mg, Zidovudine 300mg and Nelfinavir 750mg orally) in which CD4 cell count from 238.7±21.9 to 328.95±21.6 (cells/mm3) (37.8%) and body weight from 54.38±1.69 to 55.99 kg (2.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrate the activity of both strategies of ART combination in Yemen through reducing termination of patients by death and improving the health status of patient through increasing body weight
Hydatid cyst disease is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus, where hydatid cysts predominantly affect the liver and lungs but are very rarely encountered in the breasts. This report is the first to present an unusual mammary hydatid cyst in the left breast of a 45-year-old woman from Yemen. The patient complained of a painless mass in the left breast for one year. Imaging revealed a mobile lesion with smooth margins. After the removal of the whole mass, diagnosis of the hydatid cysts was confirmed by histopathology. The patient was treated with albendazole for a month, and no recurrence was observed during follow-up visits. Therefore, this type of cysts should be considered by radiologists and surgeons in the differential diagnosis of breast lumps in areas endemic for the disease
Complications of Acute Meningoencephalitis among Children Admitted to Al-Wahda Teaching Hospital in Aden, Yemen
Objective: To determine the types and frequencies of complications associated with acute meningoencephalitis (ME) among children admitted to hospitals in Aden, Yemen. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 children (1 month – 14 years of age) admitted to AL-Wahda Teaching Hospital in Aden with acute ME (viral or bacterial) over the period from January to June 2010. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Differences or associations between categorical variables were considered statistically significant at P values <0.05. Results: ME complications were significantly higher among children aged less than one year compared to those aged one year or older (58.8% vs. 38.5%, respectively) and among those with bacterial ME compared to those with viral ME (79.2% vs. 30.6%, respectively). The complications were also significantly higher among children with history of illness for three or more days before their admission compared to those having been ill for less than three days (65.8 vs. 22.7%, respectively). In addition, children aged less than two years not exclusively breastfed were more prone to ME complications compared to those exclusively breastfed (93.5% vs. 50.0%, respectively). Increased intracranial pressure (ICP), anemia and hypoglycemia were the three most frequent ME complications among children admitted to Al-Wahda Teaching Hospital, being observed in 53.3%, 50.0% and 43.3% of patients, respectively. Increased ICP was significantly higher among children aged five years or older compared to those aged less than five years (88.9% vs. 47.1%, respectively). In contrast, anemia and hyperglycemia were significantly higher among children aged less than five years (56.9% and 49.0%, respectively) compared to those aged five years or older (11.1% each). Conclusions: ME complications are significantly higher among children aged less than one year, infected with bacterial ME, with history of illness for three or more days before their admission and not exclusively breastfed. Increased ICP, anemia and hypoglycemia are the three most frequent ME complications, particularly among children with bacterial ME in Aden, followed by focal neurological deficits seizures and cranial nerve palsy. Although increased ICP is significantly higher among children aged five years or older, anemia and hyperglycemia are significantly higher among children aged less than five years. Active measures to promote immunization and exclusive breastfeeding along with early diagnosis and proper treatment are highly recommended. Further large-scale studies are required to study the pattern of complications following acute ME among Yemeni children. Keywords: Meningoencephalitis, Complication, Intracranial pressure, Seizure, Focal neurological sign, Cranial nerve palsy, Yemen
Berberine Chloride and Hyperthermia Promote Osterix Expression and Suppress Cell Cycle Genes in Osteosarcoma Cells
Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of berberine chloride and various heat conditions on the gene expression of Osterix, RUNX-2, RANKL, CDK2, CDK4, IL-6 and IL-11. Methods: Six groups of cells were treated with hyperthermia for 1 h: Two groups at mild, two at moderate and two at severe hyperthermia (39, 43 and 45°C respectively). Berberine chloride (80 µg/mL) was selected for treating one group of mild, moderate and severe hyperthermia (combination). All treated groups were recovered at 37°C for 24 h. Another exposure for hyperthermia (1 h) and recovery for 3 h at 37°C were applied. Results: The expression of Osterix was highly upregulated in all groups except in the severe hyperthermia and mild hyperthermia with berberine groups. Only the mild hyperthermia without berberine induced a slight increase in the expression of RUNX2, whereas severe hyperthermia alone suppressed the levels on a significant manner. Berberine alone was more effective in significantly up-regulating RANKL expression. On the other hand, CDK2 mRNA was downregulated in all groups. CDK4 showed a similar regulation in the mild hyperthermia group with control, but the expression was downregulated in the other groups, especially in severe hyperthermia the expression was significantly downregulated (p<0.5). IL-6 was upregulated highly and significantly in the group of berberine and all groups of combinations, whereas mild and moderate hyperthermia stimulated significant expression of IL-11 mRNA. Conclusion: These results suggest that hyperthermia and berberine chloride can promote osteosarcoma cells differentiation and arrest cell-cycle
Improving the Stripping Resistance of Local Hot Mix Asphalt Containing Basalt Aggregate by the use of Cement
One of the main reasons behind the appearance of early stripping and raveling in many roads in the Sana'a region is the use of basalt aggregate as the main component in both coarse and fine aggregate portions. Although this type of aggregate has an excellent behaviour in terms of compression strength, resistance to polishing/abrasion, resistance to weathering and chemical attack, it has, on the other hand, a low adhesion to asphalt due to its low porosity and absorption properties. This draw-back makes thestripping potential of the asphalt concrete mixes high. The possibility of improving the properties of local asphalt concrete mixes, containing basalt aggregate, in term of stripping resistance is the focus of this paper. In this study, the normally used dust aggregate mineral filler, the material smaller than 0.075 mm, was replaced by Normal Portland Cement at different portions. The replacement includes four levels, namely 0%, 50%, 75% and 100%.Results showed that replacement of dust aggregate mineral filler by cement not only increases the adhesion properties between asphalt and aggregate (stripping resistance) but also improves other properties of the asphalt concrete mixes such as stability and density. The optimal mix was the mix thathad coarse and fine basalt aggregate and 5%, by total of weight of the mixture, cement filler. The optimal mix showed superiority, over the tested mixes, in all the evaluated properties, which were Marshall Stability, indirect tensile strength and stripping resistance.The study was expanded to evaluate/compare the local practice in evaluating stripping resistance (at air voids equal to that obtained from mix design i.e. close to 4%) with that presented in AASHTO T283-89 (at 7% air voids). Results showed a significant deviation between the two methods. The stripping resistance at 4% air voids was significantly higher than that at 7% air voids. Thus, and due to the incompatibility between the two methods, the local practice may provide misleading results by accepting mixes with apparently higher stripping resistances while the actual resistances, according to international standards, are not so. Therefore, a recommendation for not using local practice in evaluating stripping resistance was presented
The Foundations of the Development of the Archaeological Areas of Historical citiesأسس تطوير وتنمية المناطق الأثرية بالمدن التاريخية -رؤية نقدية لمشروع تطوير منطقة معابد الكرنك ضمن منظومة تنمية وتطوير مدينة الأقصر بصعيد مصر
This study reviews the development project archeological sites in Luxor city in general with a special focus on the development of the temples of Karnak area as a model for the rest of the projects implemented in the archeological areas of the city. To monitor, analysis and evaluate the project from the architectural point of view to determine the extent to which the results were desired, and the impact of the implementation of this project on the other archaeological areas. تستعرض الدراسة مشروع تنمية وتطوير المناطق الاثرية بمدينة الاقصر بشكل عام مع التركيز بشكل خاص على مشروع تطوير منطقة معابد الكرنك كنموذج لباقي المشروعات المنفذة بالمناطق الاثرية بالمدينة بهدف رصد وتحليل و تقييم المشروع من الناحية المعمارية من خلال رؤية نقدية معمارية للوقوف على مدى ما حققه من نتائج كانت مرجوة منه و من تحويل تلك المنطقة الى متحف مفتوح، و مدى تأثير تطبيق هذا المشروع على غيره من المناطق الاثرية الاخرى، و ينتهى البحث بالنتائج والتوصيات الخاصة بذلك المشروع، والتي يمكن ان تمثل في مجملها أسس منهجية لتطوير و تنمية المناطق الاثرية للحفاظ على مثل تلك الثروات من الارث الانساني
A New Method for the Digital Systems Design based on Digital AND-XOR Multiplexer طريقة لتصميم النظم الرقمية على اساس المداول الرقمي AND-XOR
This paper proposes a new way to design the digital and logical electronic systems that have either single or multi outputs based on the AND-XOR digital multiplexer. The proposed way has been illustrated using of numerical examples that proves that the way is an organized and can be programmed to be used with large digital systems.يقدم البحث طريقة حديدة لتصميم النظم المنطقية الالكترونية ذات المخرج الواحد و النظم المنطقية الالكترونية متعددة المخارج على اساس المداول الرقمي AND-XOR. وقد وضحت الطريقة بامثلة عددية وهي طريقة منظمة يمكن برمجتها لتستخدم مع النظم الرقمية الكبيرة
2D Objects Recognition By Invriant Fourier Descriptor
Some Chain Conditions On Substrings ..........
An Evaluation of Cache Behavior of Prolog Programs....................