Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje: Journals / Универзитет "Св. Кирил и Методиј"-Скопје
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    The re-examination of the classification of modern armed conflicts is done through the analysis of humanitarian law and the available data on armed conflicts, by combining the legal, political and ethical dimensions of war and the statistical indicators of modern conflicts.The author answers the questions about: Defining the conflict according to the various philosophical, social and legal criteria with the cultural, legal and political basis of the war and the corresponding reasons for the occurrence and prolongation of the conflicts; and the main trends of the conflicts through the numerous presences of the conflicts on the global scene, the number of victims, the regional displacement of the conflicts and the role of the Islamic State.In the analysis of the conflicts, the complexity of the modern conflicts through the expanded categories of victims and combatants, as well as the need for the protection of the victims, are emphasized.Hence the research touches on the issue of the applicability of the legal and illegal combatant categories and the corresponding immunity that follows them.Researching the trends of modern armed conflicts cannot avoid the ethical dimensions surrounding the category of child soldiers. From a methodological point of view, the problem of determining precise statistics for the indirectly killed civilians, who continue to represent the largest category, remains unsolved


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    In recent years, artificial intelligence has made significant progress, leading to a wide variety of applications, such as speech recognition, product recommendations, language translation, and many other applications. Although gender equality and artificial intelligence can be considered separate fields, they are closely related and mutually influence each other. The purpose of this paper is to outline various aspects of relationship between gender equality and artificial intelligence, to identify interrelationship between them, and to present challenges and possible solutions to problems arising from their connection. This text will present the issue of gender equality in the development of artificial intelligence, but also the impact of artificial intelligence on gender equality; challenges and possible solutions, successful examples and case studies, legislation and policies supporting gender balance in artificial intelligence, the impact of gender equality on quality and innovation in artificial intelligence; the future of dynamics of development of relationship of gender equality and artificial intelligence

    A Capital Structure & Cost Efficiency in Selected Listed Financial Firms in Nigeria

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    The study analyzed the cost effectiveness of a subset of Nigerian listed financial firms and looked at the impact of corporate governance on the subset of listed financial enterprises. Additionally, it evaluated how corporate governance affected how chosen listed financial organizations in Nigeria related to capital structure and cost effectiveness. There were with the intention of supplying details on the interactions between capital structure, corporate governance, and cost effectiveness in a number of Nigerian financial organizations between 2005 and 2020. The study used secondary data from 20 quoted, carefully chosen financial firms in Nigeria and used a descriptive survey design.The annual audited financial statements of the companies were used to collect and analyze data on corporate governance variables like size, membership, independence, and shareholding status; efficiency variables like assets, profit, and share capital; and capital structure variables like long and short term debts. The findings indicated that the deposit money banks in Nigeria had an average cost of efficiency of 54.6%. The capital structure was significantly impacted by corporate governance factors such board size (t= 2.285, p0.05) and board expertise (t=-2.311, p0.05). Finally, the outcome demonstrated that elements of corporate governance such board size (t=-2.807, p 0.05),Board independence and board composition, which acted as intermediary variables between corporate governance and cost effectiveness, were both statistically significant at the 5% level. According to the study's findings, there was a significant association between cost effectiveness, corporate governance, and capital structure. &nbsp


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    Во овој труд се обрнува внимание кон значителни зголемувања во активноста поврзана со сексуална злоупотреба и експлоатација на деца и на површинската и на темната мрежа за време на периодот на рестрикциите на КОВИД-19. Целта на овој труд е анализа за тоа како пандемијата на КОВИД-19 ги модифицираше трендовите и заканите за сексуална експлоатација и злоупотреба на деца, кои веќе беа на високо ниво и пред пандемијата. Оваа статија ги истакнува трендовите и заканите во тековниот контекст на КОВИД-19 во споредба со мерките пред пандемијата, какво влијание имаат тие на краток рок и со какви промени резултираа кога мерките за КОВИД-19 се намалија или целосно се укинаа. Трудот придонесува за разбирање на просторот на темната мрежа за време на пандемијата преку манифестација на тековниот организиран бизнис-модел кој еволуирал како што се шири технологијата и нивото на закана што го претставува за децата. Целта е да се споделат овие трендови низ глобалната заедница за спроведување на законот и науката со цел да се подобри мониторингот и откривањето на сексуалната експлоатација и злоупотреба на деца на интернет, понатамошни истраги и глобален полициски одговор

    The abilities of recruiters and methodology of the selection process as factors for employment

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    The strategies for recruitment and selection of candidates are increasingly evolving as the main factors for the successful employment of candidates. In a society where companies compete for suitable candidates, recruiters have the responsible role of representing the company and making the first impression. The recruiters are the link between the labour population and the labour market. The abilities that recruiters possess and the selection strategies they use are a crucial part of this interconnection. The aim of the paper is to analyse what methodology recruiters use in the selection process, as well as the main abilities they must possess as a factor to create a match between suitable candidates and the job position. By studying the point of view of recruiters and candidates, we describe the variety of strategies used in the process of hiring candidates. With the scope of ensuring a positive candidate experience as well as a pleasant recruitment process in a limited labour market such as the current one, recruiters need to possess strong soft skills, especially in terms of communication, active listening, and empathy. When deciding upon the methodology they need to work closely together with the hiring managers and HR managers and choose the most adequate steps such as interviews, personality tests, and various tasks. Empirical results from the study give a glimpse of the methodology and tools used in sourcing and selecting suitable candidates and provide consideration of other practices to be developed in the recruitment process in order to increase and improve employment


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    Climate change and related meteorological drought have been one of the most important factors limiting plant production in Turkey as well as in the whole world. Producers have to develop quick solutions for sudden drought and water shortage conditions in the field. One of these solutions is the application of various chemicals that provide resistance to drought during the growing period of plants. Since the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Türkiye is a semi-arid region, mostly irrigated agriculture is carried out from early spring to the beginning of winter. Especially in dry periods, the negative effects of drought are seen rapidly in plants such as lettuce, which are sensitive to water deficiency. In order to reduce these negative effects, different salicylic acid (SA) concentrations were tried under deficient irrigation conditions in lettuce plant grown in autumn planting in Diyarbakır. For this purpose, three different irrigation water amounts and four different SA concentrations were applied. According to these applications, the lowest leaf length was obtained from the subject where SA was not applied and the lowest dose of irrigation water. The lowest leaf width was obtained from the subject where the lowest dose of irrigation water was applied. The highest whole plant dry weight was obtained from the subject treated with the least amount of water and 0.50 mM SA. The effects of irrigation water and SA on SPAD readings and the water-soluble dry matter parameter in plants were not statistically significant


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    The text defines the fundamental terms relevant to the process of sampling, elaborates the characteristics of individual samples, selection strategies, and the key methodological issues and dilemmas of the researchers during the procedures of sampling. The selection of a sample is an essential aspect when planning the methodology of empirical research and has a key role in ensuring the reliability and validity of research results. Researchers should carefully consider the characteristics of the population and the specific research objectives and accordingly choose the sampling strategy. Representative samples minimize bias and provide a higher level of confidence when generalizing results to a larger population. Non-representative samples are valuable when the selection of a representative sample is impractical or impossible. They involve different forms of bias but offer flexibility, cost-effectiveness and practicality. Non-representative samples are applicable in qualitative studies and in the research with populations that are hard to reach. However, it is important to be aware of their limitations and the justification for generalization findings outside the specific sample. Regardless of the used strategy, researchers must strive for transparency, clearly documenting the unit selection procedure and stress the potential limitations as key elements to ensure the reliability and validity of the research results


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    In the phase of language acquisition process that starts when a child reaches the first year of age and lasts until the third year when a child has gained command over the basics of the mother tongue, nouns and verbs are the most important parts of speech that children use in the process of communication. Language acquisition will depend on a number of factors: a child's gender, the number of children in the family, a child's environment, the media they consume, the way older members of the family speak to the child, attending kindergarten, parents' education and the organic idiom that a child is exposed to. At that early age a child names everything that surrounds them thus gaining knowledge about the world around them. Colours are a part of a child's world and after naming things and people, the child starts acquiring the names of primary colours. In the same way, if a child is learning a foreign language, one of the first words to be learned are the names of the colours so the content of numerous cartoons intended for nursery school children is connected with colours. With time, a child expands their vocabulary acquiring new words, listening to stories and especially fairy tales that are rich with various adjectives and colour names in denotative and connotative meanings. It is interesting that children often use colours to describe people, exterior and interior space both in speaking and writing. Even though their knowledge about colours increases with age, in the active lexis there are very often only basic colours: blue, red, yellow, brown, black, white and green. Therefore, it is the goal of this research to examine how younger school children (7 to10-year- olds) use colours in their descriptions of people, exterior and interior space. The research was made in the form of an experiment taking place in the Croatian language (mother tongue) lesson during which the students had to activate the lexemes connected with colours using texts about colours and language play. After that, the students wrote compositions in which active use of colours in written expression was tested. The research confirmed the expectation that students use up to five basic colours in their speech and a small number of different adjectives which implies that younger school children's vocabulary size is getting smaller despite numerous spoken language impulses that children today receive.U procesu usvajanja jezika u jezičnoj fazi, koja započinje kada dijete navrši prvu godinu, pa sve do treće godine, kada dijete ovlada temeljima materinskoga jezika, imenice i glagoli temeljne su vrste riječi koje djeca koriste u procesu komunikacije. Usvajanje jezika ovisit će o mnogim čimbenicima: spolu djeteta, broju djece u obitelji, okolini kojoj je dijete izloženo, medijima koje dijete konzumira, načinu obraćanja starijih ukućana, uključenosti u dječji vrtić, obrazovanju roditelja te organskom idiomu kojemu je dijete izloženo. U toj ranoj dobi dijete imenuje sve što ga okružuje te na taj način upoznaje svijet oko sebe. Boje su sastavni dio njegova svijeta te vrlo brzo nakon što imenuje određenu stvar ili osobu započinje usvajati imena osnovnih boja. Jednako tako, ukoliko dijete uči strani jezik, jedan od privih poticaja usmjeren je ovladavanju imena boja pa su tako i mnogi crtani filmovi namijenjeni djeci jasličke dobi sadržajno povezani s bojama. S vremenom dijete proširuje svoj vokabular usvajajući nove riječi, slušajući priče te osobito bajke koje obiluju raznolikim pridjevima i uporabom boja u denotativnom, ali i konotativnom značenju. Zanimljivo je da djeca boje često rabe u opisu osobe, vanjskoga i unutrašnjega prostora, kako u usmenom, tako i u pisanome obliku. Iako svoje znanje o bojama s godinama proširuju, vrlo često u aktivnom leksiku ostaju prisutne tek temeljne boje: plava, crvena, žuta, smeđa, crna, bijela i zelena. Upravo zato cilj je ovoga istraživanja ispitati koliko djeca rane školske dobi (7. - 10. godine) u svom pisanom radu koriste boje u opisu osobe, unutarnjeg i vanjskog prostora. Istraživanje će biti eksperimentalno tako što će se učenicima održati jedan sat Hrvatskoga (materinskoga) jezika koji će aktivirati lekseme vezane uz boje uz pomoć tekstova o bojama i jezičnim igrama. Potom će učenici pisati sastavke kojima će se provjeriti aktivna uporaba „boja“ u pisanome izrazu. Istraživanjem je potvrđeno da će učenici u svojim radovima upotrijebiti do pet osnovnih boja te vrlo malen broj različitih pridjeva, što upućuje na sve siromašniji rječnik djece mlađe školske dobi unatoč brojnim poticajima kojima su djeca današnjice izložena


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    The military actions, the loss of human lives and especially the cruelty of the Nazi and Fascist regimes and armies caused a reaction among the allied governments, the public and intellectuals. The Nazi regime in Germany and its actions, in general, even before the beginning of WWII caused an initially mild and later a sharp reaction and criticism in the democratic world. However, the behaviour and fanaticism of the German armed forces and their atrocities during the war could not but cause reflections about how the allied countries, especially the larger ones, should deal with the defeated Germany. The experience of WWI had shown that German Nazism had, as its basis, the militarism which was present everywhere, including in the educational process. That is why many in the United States and Great Britain began to think aloud about a complete change of the German educational system and the re-education of the Germans after the military victory. There was a great dilemma over the questions of how to carry out that re-education, whether to include only the younger population that was exposed to Nazi indoctrination, and whether Germans who were opponents of Nazism should be included in that process. The debates were conducted among politicians, in the public, among scholars and scientists. The view that gradually prevailed was that the issue was complex and that some Germans should be involved in the re-education process after the War


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