Journals of Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan
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    Evaluasi Penggunaan Ramipril dan Candesartan pada Pasien Rawat Inap COVID-19 dengan Komorbid Hipertensi di RSUD Dr. Moewardi

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    Hypertension is the most common comorbid in patients infected by COVID-19. Drugs often given for the treatment of hypertension, namely ramipril, and candesartan, are thought to increase the development of COVID-19 because the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase the expression of ACE-2, which is the binding site of SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to analyze the effect of using ramipril and candesartan on healing in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with hypertension at RSUD dr. Moewardi in 2020. This study was conducted retrospectively. The results were presented descriptively and used medical record data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with comorbid hypertension at RSUD dr. Moewardi in 2020. Using ramipril and candesartan affects patient recovery in terms of length of stay (LOS), symptom relief, and RT-PCR test results. Analysis of the research data using SPSS with Spearman correlation test. The Spearman correlation test showed that there was a fairly strong relationship between the use of ramipril and candesartan in patients with COVID-19 with comorbid hypertension on LOS, symptom relief, and RT-PCR test results. The study results show that using ramipril and candesartan can improve the recovery of patients with COVID-19 with comorbid hypertension. ACEI and ARB drugs have not been proven to worsen the patient's condition so their use can be continued

    Efektivitas Gel Ekstrak Etanol 70% Daun Anggrek Oncidium (Oncidium Aliceara alice) terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Kulit Dorsum Tikus Sprague Dawley

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    Wounds are tissue damage that is generally caused by physical contact. Wound healing is a complex mechanism involving biochemical and biocellular processes. Various therapies can be done to speed up the wound healing process, one of which is treatment using natural ingredients. One of the plants that have the potential to heal wounds is Oncidium Aliceara alice. The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of Oncidium Aliceara alice and its activity in wound healing when it is formulated in a gel form. This research is experimental research with extraction stages, phytochemical assay, gel formulations, quality test, and wound healing activity tests in animals. The gel formulation was made with various concentrations of Oncidium Aliceara alice extract 2.5%, 5% and 10%. Male Sprague Dawley rats were given an incision wound on the dorsum of the longitudinal axis along 3 cm. Wound care by administering topical Bioplacenton as a positive control, base gel as a negative control, and gel extract concentration variants according to each treatment group. Based on the research, the results of qualitative phytochemical tests showed that the 70% ethanol extract of Oncidium Aliceara alice contains flavonoids (catechins), tannins, steroids, and saponins. The best results were seen on the 7th day of observation for the 10% gel extract treatment group with more perfect signs of wound closure than the bioplacenton treatment

    Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Kemangi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) Terhadap Mortalitas Larva Aedes aegypti

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    Basil leaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known to have the ability as natural larvicides because there are various compounds including tannins, eugenol, flavonoids, essential oils, hexauronic acid, saponins, pentose, xylose, metal homocytic acid, mulludistin, ursolic acid and methyl clavical. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of basil leaf extract (O. sanctum Linn) on mortality of Aedes agypti larvae. This research is a true experimental type with posttest only with control group design. Aedes aegypti larvae obtained from Balitbangkes Banjarnegara were used in this study as many as 450 larvae. This study consisted of 6 groups with 2 control groups (positive control/temefos 1% and negative control/distilled water) and 4 other groups receiving treatment with basil leaf extract concentrations of 1.5%, 1.8%, 2.1%, and 2.4%. Each group contained 25 larvae of Ae. aegypti with three repetitions and observation time with 10th, 40th, 60th, 120th, 240, 720, and 1440 minute intervals. Larval mortality of Ae. aegypti occurred from the 120th minute with a concentration of 2.4% with a mortality percentage of 5.6%. The results of the Kruskal Wallis test showed that there were differences in the mortality of Ae. aegypti at 60, 120, 240, 720, and 1440 minutes. The LC50 value was 2.329% at 720 minutes while the LC90 test was 7.043% at 720 minutes. Basil leaf extract has not been effective as a larvicide because mortality occurred from the 120th minute


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    Efek Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor terhadap Kadar Kreatinin Serum dan Superoksida Dismutase Tikus Model 5/6 Subtotal Nefrektomi

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    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is still a major problem in the health sector in the world, including in Indonesia. One of the main pathomechanisms in CKD is oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that plays a role in fighting oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be overcome with antioxidants both from inside the body and from the outside obtained from natural materials. Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera L.) have the potential to prevent the progressivity of CKD because of their flavonoid content which has an antioxidant effect. This study aimed to analyze the effect of Moringa leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) on serum creatinine and SOD levels in rat model 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. This research is an experimental study with a post-test only with a control group design. A total of 30 male white rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group A: sham control, B: subtotal nephrectomy, C, D, and E: treatment groups with MLEE of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg BW, respectively. On the 15th day after the administration of extracts or aqua dest, sham surgery was carried out in group A, and 5/6 of subtotal nephrectomy in groups B, C, D, and E continued to administer extracts and aqua dest until the 21st day. A blood sample is taken on the 22nd day after surgery, checked serum creatinine levels and SOD. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average serum creatinine levels (

    Analisis Spasial Pengaruh House Index dengan Kasus DBD di Kecamatan Bangilan Kabupaten Tuban

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    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Tuban Regency was an important health problem. Bangilan sub-district is a sub-district in Tuban Regency which has high dengue cases. The Bangilan Health Center has not used mapping or spatial analysis in its surveillance activities for dengue cases. Disease mapping is useful in assisting surveillance activities and making it easier for us to find out the spread of the house index in each village area. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial house index with dengue cases in Bangilan District, Tuban Regency. This type of research is descriptive analytic. The population in this study is a house around DHF patients with a radius of 100 m from the patient's house in Bangilan District, with a total sample of 774 houses. The research variables were cases of DHF and house index. DHF cases in 2020-2022 were obtained from secondary data from the Bangilan Health Center, while the house index was obtained from the larvae survey results. The data were analyzed to determine the effect of the house index and dengue cases using the GeoDa application. The results showed that the average house index in Bangilan District was 20.8% which according to WHO was high. The pattern of spread of DHF cases is random with an Average Nearest Neighbor value = 1 and the results of Moran's Index (I) = 0.061, meaning that there is a strong spatial autocorrelation effect on the house index with DHF cases

    Pengembangan dan Validasi Metode Bioanalisis Trimetoprim dalam Sampel Plasma dan Urin Manusia Simulasi Menggunakan KCKT-PDA

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    To monitor trimethoprim levels (TMP) in humans, a validated, simple, and cost-efficient analytical method is needed to be applied regularly. However, most of the methods used to establish TMP levels in urine and plasma use complex instrumentation. Therefore, in this study, a simpler High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-based (HPLC) method was developed. The separation was carried out using a GIST® C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at a temperature of 35°C which was fed by a mobile phase in the form of an acetic acid solution pH 2.5: acetonitrile (87:13, v / v) at a speed of 1.4 ml/min. Detection was performed with Photodiode Array Detector (PDA) at wavelengths of 254 nm and 243 nm to quantify TMP in urine and plasma samples respectively. The preparation of urine and plasma sequentially was carried out by the liquid-liquid extraction (ECC) method using ethyl acetate and the protein precipitation using acetonitrile. This method proved to be selective, linear (R=0.997), accurate with %error ≤ 10.29% at LLOQ level and above LLOQ value %error ≤ 10.45%, precision with %RSD ≤ 11.79% at LLOQ level and %RSD ≤ 10.82% above LLOQ. In addition, this method is quite sensitive for pharmacokinetic studies in the urine and monitoring of TMP levels in the blood with LLOQ 5 mg/L in both urine and plasma. The stability of trimethoprim in solution, urine, and plasma was conducted to ensure storage time. The developed method is proven to be valid and can be applied in pharmacokinetic studies and monitoring of trimethoprim drug levels in urine and plasma

    Potential of Leaf Extracts Sonneratia alba and Avicennia alba as a Biolarvacide of Aedes aegypti Mosquito

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    The continuous use of synthetic larvacides as an effort to control the vector mosquito population of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) can cause negative impacts on the environment and humans. Bioactive compounds from animals and plants can be used as an alternative to natural larvacides (biolarvacides). Mangrove species Sonneratia alba and Avicennia alba are known to have several bioactive types, so they are potential as biolarvacides. This study aimed to determine the potential of S. alba and A. alba leaf extracts as biolarvacides against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae. This research was true experimental with a post-test-only group design. The larvicidal toxicity test of the leaf extracts of S. alba and A. alba against Ae. aegypti larvae to obtain the LC50 value was carried out by treating the extract concentrations at 500 ppm, 1,000 ppm, and 1,500 ppm. Synthetic larvicide (abate) was used as a positive control and Aquadest as a negative control. Data analysis was carried out descriptively and statistically (probit analysis). The results showed that the leaf extracts of S. alba and A. alba had potential as biolarvacides. Based on the LC50 value, the extracts of A. alba (LC50: 1,053 ppm) were more potent as biolarvacides than the extracts of S. alba (LC50: 14,112 ppm). Physical damage and behavioral changes in mosquito larvae movement indicated that the toxicity of A. alba leaf extract was acute while that of S. alba leaf extract was chronic

    Pengaruh Pemberian Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Piper crocatum dan Ekstrak Akuades Elaeocarpus ganitrus pada Kadar Gula Tikus

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    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Antidiabetic research using natural ingredients has been carried out a lot, one of which is by utilizing red betel leaves and granite leaves. Combining two plants must be done to increase the antihyperglycemic effect and reduce the toxic effects. This study aimed to obtain the most effective dose variations in combinations of plants that are safer and have better results so that they can be used as alternative treatments. The blood sugar levels were measured in vivo on white Wistar rats induced with streptozotocin using a glucometer. The results showed that a single extract of red betel leaf (100 mg/kg BW) and a single extract of granite leaf (100 mg/kg BW) had a percentage decrease in blood sugar levels of 27% and 10%, respectively. While the combination of extracts with a ratio of 100:100, 50:50, 100:50, and 50:100 mg/kg BW has a decrease in blood sugar levels of 50%, 42%, 33%, and 19% after 21 days of observation. The study also showed that the positive control of 0.036 mg glimepiride caused a 36% decrease in sugar levels. Statistical analysis proved that the effect of reducing blood sugar levels on days 0 to 21 differed for each treatment group with a p-value of 0.05. The study concluded that the combination of red betel leaf extract and granite leaf extract was more effective on blood sugar levels than the single extract of each plant in white male Wistar rats. The percentage reduction in blood sugar levels of the combination extract with a dose ratio of 50:50 mg/kg BW and 100:100 mg/kg resulted in better antidiabetic activity than the positive control glimepiride. The combination ratio of 100:100 mg/kg BW extract had the best antidiabetic activity compared to the other extract treatment groups

    Validasi Metode Analisis Penetapan Kadar Protein Ekstrak Ikan Gabus dengan Metode Lowry dan Bromocresol Green

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    Snakehead fish is one of the biological resources with high economic value because it contains high albumin levels. Analytical methods for the determination of protein content in snakehead fish are available not been validated. This study aims to obtain a comparison of the accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity between the Lowry and Bromocresol-green methods in determining albumin levels from snakehead fish extracts. This study was performed with the SHIMADZU UV-1280 spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 778 nm for the lowry method and 638 nm for the bromocresol-green method. The results of the study show that all parameters meet the requirements for accepting validation. The results were tested statistically with the independent t-test, the p-value was 0.172 (p> 0.05) the accuracy between the Lowry and Bromocresol-green methods did not have a significant difference, that the Lowry and Bromocresol green methods had the same ability to determine accuracy parameters and precision parameters, the p-value is 0.000 (


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