MicroRNA as a Potential Therapeutic Molecule in Cancer

Abstract

Small noncoding RNAs, as post-translational regulators of many target genes, are not only markers of neoplastic disease initiation and progression, but also markers of response to anticancer therapy. Hundreds of miRNAs have been identified as biomarkers of drug resistance, and many have demonstrated the potential to sensitize cancer cells to therapy. Their properties of modulating the response of cells to therapy have made them a promising target for overcoming drug resistance. Several methods have been developed for the delivery of miRNAs to cancer cells, including introducing synthetic miRNA mimics, DNA plasmids containing miRNAs, and small molecules that epigenetically alter endogenous miRNA expression. The results of studies in animal models and preclinical studies for solid cancers and hematological malignancies have confirmed the effectiveness of treatment protocols using microRNA. Nevertheless, the use of miRNAs in anticancer therapy is not without limitations, including the development of a stable nanoconstruct, delivery method choices, and biodistribution. The aim of this review was to summarize the role of miRNAs in cancer treatment and to present new therapeutic concepts for these molecules. Supporting anticancer therapy with microRNA molecules has been verified in numerous clinical trials, which shows great potential in the treatment of cancer

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