2,452,826 research outputs found

    Multiple roles of motor imagery during action observation

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    Over the last 20 years, the topics of action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) have been largely studied in isolation from each other, despite the early integrative account by Jeannerod (1994, 2001). Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate enhanced cortical activity when AO and MI are performed concurrently (“AO+MI”), compared to either AO or MI performed in isolation. These results indicate the potentially beneficial effects of AO+MI, and they also demonstrate that the underlying neurocognitive processes are partly shared. We separately review the evidence for MI and AO as forms of motor simulation, and present two quantitative literature analyses that indeed indicate rather little overlap between the two bodies of research. We then propose a spectrum of concurrent AO+MI states, from congruent AO+MI where the contents of AO and MI widely overlap, over coordinative AO+MI, where observed and imagined action are different but can be coordinated with each other, to cases of conflicting AO+MI. We believe that an integrative account of AO and MI is theoretically attractive, that it should generate novel experimental approaches, and that it can also stimulate a wide range of applications in sport, occupational therapy, and neurorehabilitation

    Short term doxycycline treatment induces sustained improvement in myocardial infarction border zone contractility.

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    Decreased contractility in the non-ischemic border zone surrounding a MI is in part due to degradation of cardiomyocyte sarcomeric components by intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). We recently reported that MMP-2 levels were increased in the border zone after a MI and that treatment with doxycycline for two weeks after MI was associated with normalization of MMP-2 levels and improvement in ex-vivo contractile protein developed force in the myocardial border zone. The purpose of the current study was to determine if there is a sustained effect of short term treatment with doxycycline (Dox) on border zone function in a large animal model of antero-apical myocardial infarction (MI). Antero-apical MI was created in 14 sheep. Seven sheep received doxycycline 0.8 mg/kg/hr IV for two weeks. Cardiac MRI was performed two weeks before, and then two and six weeks after MI. Two sheep died prior to MRI at six weeks from surgical/anesthesia-related causes. The remaining 12 sheep completed the protocol. Doxycycline induced a sustained reduction in intracellular MMP-2 by Western blot (3649±643 MI+Dox vs 9236±114 MI relative intensity; p = 0.0009), an improvement in ex-vivo contractility (65.3±2.0 MI+Dox vs 39.7±0.8 MI mN/mm2; p<0.0001) and an increase in ventricular wall thickness at end-systole 1.0 cm from the infarct edge (12.4±0.6 MI+Dox vs 10.0±0.5 MI mm; p = 0.0095). Administration of doxycycline for a limited two week period is associated with a sustained improvement in ex-vivo contractility and an increase in wall thickness at end-systole in the border zone six weeks after MI. These findings were associated with a reduction in intracellular MMP-2 activity

    Circulating inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers are associated with risk of myocardial infarction and coronary death, but not angina pectoris, in older men

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    Aims: The extent to which hemostatic and inflammatory biomarkers are related to angina pectoris as compared with myocardial infarction (MI) remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between a wide range of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, including markers of activated coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelial dysfunction and viscosity, with incident myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary heart disease (CHD) death and incident angina pectoris uncomplicated by MI or CHD death in older men. Methods: A prospective study of 3217 men aged 60-79 years with no baseline CHD (angina or MI) and who were not on warfarin, followed up for 7 years during which there were 198 MI/CHD death cases and 220 incident uncomplicated angina cases. Results: Inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, fibrinogen], plasma viscosity and hemostatic biomarkers [von Willebrand factor (VWF) and fibrin D-dimer] were associated with a significant increased risk of MI/CHD death but not with uncomplicated angina even after adjustment for age and conventional risk factors. Adjustment for CRP attenuated the relationships between VWF, fibrin D-dimer and plasma viscosity with MI/CHD death. Comparisons of differing associations with risk of MI/CHD deaths and uncomplicated angina were significant for the inflammatory markers (P < 0.05) and marginally significant for fibrin D-dimer (P = 0.05). In contrast, established risk factors including blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were associated with both MI/CHD death and uncomplicated angina. Conclusion: Circulating biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis are associated with incident MI/CHD death but not incident angina uncomplicated by MI or CHD death in older men

    Superfluid, Mott-Insulator, and Mass-Density-Wave Phases in the One-Dimensional Extended Bose-Hubbard Model

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    We use the finite-size density-matrix-renormalization-group (FSDMRG) method to obtain the phase diagram of the one-dimensional (d=1d = 1) extended Bose-Hubbard model for density ρ=1\rho = 1 in the UVU-V plane, where UU and VV are, respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbor interactions. The phase diagram comprises three phases: Superfluid (SF), Mott Insulator (MI) and Mass Density Wave (MDW). For small values of UU and VV, we get a reentrant SF-MI-SF phase transition. For intermediate values of interactions the SF phase is sandwiched between MI and MDW phases with continuous SF-MI and SF-MDW transitions. We show, by a detailed finite-size scaling analysis, that the MI-SF transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type whereas the MDW-SF transition has both KT and two-dimensional-Ising characters. For large values of UU and VV we get a direct, first-order, MI-MDW transition. The MI-SF, MDW-SF and MI-MDW phase boundaries join at a bicritical point at (U,V)=(8.5±0.05,4.75±0.05)U, V) = (8.5 \pm 0.05, 4.75 \pm 0.05).Comment: 10 pages, 15 figure

    Evaluating Motivational Interviewing in the Physician Assistant Curriculum

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    Purpose Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based technique that enables clinicians to help patients modify health behaviors. Although MI is an essential tool for physician assistants (PAs), the extent to which it is addressed in PA curricula in the United States is unknown. This study is a comprehensive description of MI education in PA programs in the United States. Methods Data are from the 2014 Physician Assistant Education Association Annual Program Survey. Descriptive statistics were conducted on de-identified data from all 186 PA programs in the United States. Results Of the 186 PA programs surveyed, 72.58% (n = 135) reported at least one course providing MI training. Availability of courses providing training in skills essential to the MI process varied. Having a course with verbal communication training was most frequently endorsed, and having a course with training in developing discrepancy was least frequently endorsed. The most popular teaching modality was lecture (84.95%, n = 158), whereas only 41.40% (n = 77) and 58.60% (n = 109) reported role play with evaluation and standardized patient exercises with evaluation, respectively. Conclusions More than 70% of programs included at least one course in their curriculum that provided training in MI, suggesting that PA programs recognize the importance of MI. Instruction in change talk was not provided in nearly half of the programs. Role-play and standardized patient exercises with evaluation were underused methods despite their proven efficacy in MI education. As the first comprehensive benchmark of MI education for PAs, this study shows that although most programs address MI, opportunities exist to improve MI training in PA programs in the United States

    Downregulation of Mcl-1 has anti-inflammatory pro-resolution effects and enhances bacterial clearance from the lung

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    Phagocytes not only coordinate acute inflammation and host defense at mucosal sites, but also contribute to tissue damage. Respiratory infection causes a globally significant disease burden and frequently progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome, a devastating inflammatory condition characterized by neutrophil recruitment and accumulation of protein-rich edema fluid causing impaired lung function. We hypothesized that targeting the intracellular protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) by a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (AT7519) or a flavone (wogonin) would accelerate neutrophil apoptosis and resolution of established inflammation, but without detriment to bacterial clearance. Mcl-1 loss induced human neutrophil apoptosis, but did not induce macrophage apoptosis nor impair phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Neutrophil-dominant inflammation was modelled in mice by either endotoxin or bacteria (Escherichia coli). Downregulating inflammatory cell Mcl-1 had anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution effects, shortening the resolution interval (R(i)) from 19 to 7 h and improved organ dysfunction with enhanced alveolar–capillary barrier integrity. Conversely, attenuating drug-induced Mcl-1 downregulation inhibited neutrophil apoptosis and delayed resolution of endotoxin-mediated lung inflammation. Importantly, manipulating lung inflammatory cell Mcl-1 also accelerated resolution of bacterial infection (R(i); 50 to 16 h) concurrent with enhanced bacterial clearance. Therefore, manipulating inflammatory cell Mcl-1 accelerates inflammation resolution without detriment to host defense against bacteria, and represents a target for treating infection-associated inflammation

    Chronic myocardial infarction promotes atrial action potential alternans, afterdepolarisations and fibrillation

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    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased in patients with heart failure resulting from myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to determine the effects of chronic ventricular MI in rabbits on the susceptibility to AF, and underlying atrial electrophysiological and Ca2+-handling mechanisms. Methods and results: In Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, under beta-adrenergic-stimulation with isoproterenol (1 µM; ISO), 8 weeks MI decreased AF threshold, indicating increased AF-susceptibility. This was associated with increased atrial action potential duration-alternans at 90% repolarisation, by 147%, and no significant change in mean APD or atrial global conduction velocity (n=6-13 non-MI hearts, 5-12 MI). In atrial isolated myocytes, also under beta-stimulation, L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) density and intracellular Ca2+-transient amplitude were decreased by MI, by 35% and 41%, respectively, and the frequency of spontaneous depolarisations (SDs) was substantially increased. MI increased atrial myocyte size and capacity, and markedly decreased transverse-tubule density. In non-MI hearts perfused with ISO, the ICaL-blocker nifedipine, at a concentration (0.02 µM) causing an equivalent ICaL-reduction (35%) to that from the MI, did not affect AF-susceptibility, and decreased APD. Conclusion: chronic MI in rabbits remodels atrial structure, electrophysiology and intracellular Ca2+-handling. Increased susceptibility to AF by MI, under beta-adrenergic-stimulation, may result from associated production of atrial APD-alternans and SDs, since steady-state APD and global conduction velocity were unchanged under these conditions, and may be unrelated to the associated reduction in whole-cell ICaL. Future studies may clarify potential contributions of local conduction changes, and cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms of alternans, to the increased AF-susceptibility

    Motivational Interviewing for Parent-child Health Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Purpose: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered approach focusing on building intrinsic motivation for change. This paper presents a meta-analysis of parent-involved MI to improve pediatric health behavior and health outcomes. Methods: Study inclusion criteria: (1) examined modifiable pediatric health behaviors (\u3c 18 years old); (2) used MI or motivational enhancement; (3) conducted a randomized controlled trial with a comparison group (non-MI control or active treatment group); (4) conducted the intervention with only a parent or both a parent and child; and (5) were written in English. Twenty-five studies (with 5,130 participants) were included and independently rated. Weighted mean effect sizes, using random-effects assumptions, were calculated. Results: Relative to comparison groups, MI was associated with significant improvements in health behaviors (e.g., oral health, diet, physical activity, reduced screen time, smoking cessation, reduced second hand smoke) and reduction in body mass index. Results suggest that MI may also outperform comparison groups in terms of dental caries, but more studies are needed. MI interventions were more successful at improving diets for Caucasians and when the intervention included more MI components. Conclusions: Our findings provide support for providing motivational interviewing to parents and children to improve pediatric health behaviors
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