108,068 research outputs found

    The status of Fusarium mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa : a review of emerging trends and post-harvest mitigation strategies towards food control

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    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives

    Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust

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    In order to determine the presence of Fusarium spp. in atmospheric dust and rainfall dust, samples were collected during September 2007, and July, August, and October 2008. The results reveal the prevalence of airborne Fusarium species coming from the atmosphere of the South East coast of Spain. Five different Fusarium species were isolated from the settling dust: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. dimerum, and F. proliferatum. Moreover, rainwater samples were obtained during significant rainfall events in January and February 2009. Using the dilution-plate method, 12 fungal genera were identified from these rainwater samples. Specific analyses of the rainwater revealed the presence of three species of Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. equiseti. A total of 57 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from both rainwater and atmospheric rainfall dust sampling were inoculated onto melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Piñonet and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. San Pedro. These species were chosen because they are the main herbaceous crops in Almeria province. The results presented in this work indicate strongly that spores or propagules of Fusarium are able to cross the continental barrier carried by winds from the Sahara (Africa) to crop or coastal lands in Europe. Results show differences in the pathogenicity of the isolates tested. Both hosts showed root rot when inoculated with different species of Fusarium, although fresh weight measurements did not bring any information about the pathogenicity. The findings presented above are strong indications that long-distance transmission of Fusarium propagules may occur. Diseases caused by species of Fusarium are common in these areas. They were in the past, and are still today, a problem for greenhouses crops in Almería, and many species have been listed as pathogens on agricultural crops in this region. Saharan air masses dominate the Mediterranean regions. The evidence of long distance dispersal of Fusarium spp. by atmospheric dust and rainwater together with their proved pathogenicity must be taken into account in epidemiological studies

    Greenhouse screening for Fusarium wilt resistance in lupine

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    Fusarium wilt can cause total crop failure. Evaluation of Ffusarium resistance in heavily infected soil were performed in a grenhouse where the dominant fusarium species in the soil in descending order was F. oxysporum then F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. solani, F. gibbosum. Large fusarium wilt presure was observed and fully susceptible lines were completely destroyed by Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxisporum. Segregation in F2 and F3 in L. angustifolius showed that resistant genotypes have two dominant non-allelic resistance genes to wilt. We call this gene Relation to fusarium oxisporum (Rfo1,Rfo2). Susceptible genotypes have either two wild genes (++ ++) or one wild and one dominant resistant gene (++ Rfo2 Rfo2, or Rfo1Rfo1 ++). Crossing ‘++ Rfo2Rfo2’ to ‘Rfo1Rfo1 ++’ segregates in 9:7 resistant to susceptible in F2, respectively. The same segregation was observed by crossing ‘Rfo1Rfo1 Rfo2Rfo2’ to ‘++ ++’. We recommend the use of these resistant genes in breeding in areas with potential Fusarium wilt problems

    Climate change increases risk of fusarium ear blight on wheat in central China

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    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: X. Zhang, et al, 'Climate change increases risk of fusarium ear blight on wheat in central China', Annals of Applied Biology, Vol. 164 (3): 384-395, May 2014, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12107. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.To estimate potential impact of climate change on wheat fusarium ear blight, simulated weather for the A1B climate change scenario was imported into a model for estimating fusarium ear blight in central China. In this work, a logistic weather-based regression model for estimating incidence of wheat fusarium ear blight in central China was developed, using up to 10 years (2001-2010) of disease, anthesis date and weather data available for 10 locations in Anhui and Hubei provinces. In the model, the weather variables were defined with respect to the anthesis date for each location in each year. The model suggested that incidence of fusarium ear blight is related to number of days of rainfall in a 30-day period after anthesis and that high temperatures before anthesis increase the incidence of disease. Validation was done to test whether this relationship was satisfied for another five locations in Anhui province with fusarium ear blight data for 4 to 5 years but no nearby weather data, using weather data generated by the regional climate modelling system PRECIS. How climate change may affect wheat anthesis date and fusarium ear blight in central China was investigated for period 2020-2050 using wheat growth model Sirius and climate data generated by PRECIS. The projection suggested that wheat anthesis dates will generally be earlier and fusarium ear blight incidence will increase substantially for most locations.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Intracranial fusarium fungal abscess in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature.

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    Introduction Fusarium spp is an omnipresent fungal species that may lead to fatal infections in immunocompromised populations. Spontaneous intracranial infection by Fusarium spp in immunocompetent individuals is exceedingly rare. Case Report An immunocompetent 33-year-old Hispanic woman presented with persistent headaches and was found to have a contrast-enhancing mass in the left petrous apex and prepontine cistern. She underwent a subsequent craniotomy for biopsy and partial resection that revealed a Fusarium abscess. She had a left transient partial oculomotor palsy following the operation that resolved over the next few weeks. She was treated with long-term intravenous antifungal therapy and remained at her neurologic baseline 18 months following the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fusarium spp brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient. Treatment options include surgical intervention and various antifungal medications. Conclusion This case demonstrates the rare potential of intracranial Fusarium infection in the immunocompetent host, as well as its successful treatment with surgical aspiration and antifungal therapy

    Evaluating Responses of Sugar Beet Cultivars to Fusarium Species in Greenhouse and Field Conditions

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    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is becoming an important disease in Minnesota and North Dakota in the United States. One of the best ways to manage Fusarium yellows is to develop and use resistant cultivars. Responses of eight sugar beet cultivars to three Fusarium species were determined in the greenhouse and compared to the responses of the same eight cultivars grown in a field already infected by Fusarium yellows. There were significant and appreciable relationships between greenhouse and field studies for responses of eight sugar beet cultivars on Fusarium yellows. The estimated correlation coefficient for area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) between observations in fields and those in greenhouses was 0.987 (p<0.01). The mean AUDPC were significantly different among cultivars (p<0.01) in the greenhouse and in the field studies. Of the cultivars, Van der Have 46177 was the most susceptible, but Crystal R434 the most resistant. Crystal 820, Van der Have 66561, and Beta 4797R were resistant, and Beta 4818R, Seedex Magnum, and Hilleshog 2463Rz were moderately resistant. There was a strong negative relationship between the AUDPC and recoverable sucrose yield in the field experiments and the estimated coefficient of determination was 0.939 (p<0.01). It was concluded that greenhouse screening can act as a useful and reliable means to evaluate and select beet germplasms and/or accessions for resistance to Fusarium yellows.Peer reviewe

    Study and assessment of compost of different organic mixtures and effect of organic compost tea on plant diseases

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    Four compost treatments representing different organic mixtures were studied: - Treatment T1: 100% cattle manure - Treatment T2: 80% cattle manure and 20% sheep manure - Treatment T3: 70% cattle manure, 20% sheep manure and 10% poultry manure. - Treatment T4: 50% cattle manure, 20% sheep manure, 20% poultry manure and 10% crushed wheat straw. The results showed that the temperature was higher for the 4th treatment which was richer in carbon than the other treatments. The initial alkaline pH decreases for all treatments and approaches neutrality at the end of composting process, essentially for the first treatment. There is also a decrease in the carbon / nitrogen ratio. At the maturity stage, a compost tea was prepared from different composts after five days extraction period. The four compost teas were tested on different plant pathogens: Fusarium roseum var sambucinum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani var coeruleum, Phytophtora erythroseptica and Rhizoctonia solani. All the treatments were efficient against these pathogens and especially the 4th treatment which considerably reduces also the dry rot of Fusarium solani in potato tubers during storage. This is considered an important result since Fusarium solani seems to be the most important pathogen in Tunisian soils. Our studies should be carried out in order to determine the better combination of organic mixtures, the better method of compost tea extraction (aerobic or anaerobic), the optimal period of extraction and doses to be used

    The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica protects barley roots from a loss of antioxidant capacity caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium culmorum

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    Fusarium culmorum causes root rot in barley (Hordeum vulgare), resulting in severely reduced plant growth and yield. Pretreatment of roots with chlamydospores of the mutualistic root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica (Agaricomycotina) prevented necrotization of root tissues and plant growth retardation commonly associated with Fusarium root rot. Quantification of Fusarium infections with a real-time PCR assay revealed a correlation between root rot symptoms and the relative amount of fungal DNA. Fusarium-infected roots showed reduced levels of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), along with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR). Consistent with this, Fusarium-infected roots showed elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides and decreased ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione. In clear contrast, roots treated with P. indica prior to inoculation with F. culmorum showed levels of ascorbate and GSH that were similar to controls. Likewise, lipid peroxidation and the overall reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities were largely attenuated by P. indica in roots challenged by F. culmorum. These results suggest that P. indica protects roots from necrotrophic pathogens at least partly, through activating the plant’s antioxidant capacity

    Crossing Lilium Orientals of different ploidy creates Fusarium-resistant hybrid

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    Oriental hybrid lily is of great commercial value, but it is susceptible to Fusarium disease that causes a significant loss to the production. A diploid Oriental hybrid resistant to Fusarium, Cai-74, was diploidized from triploid obtained from the offspring of tetraploid (from &#x2018;Star Fighter&#x2019;) and diploid (&#x2018;Con Amore&#x2019;, &#x2018;Acapulco&#x2019;) by screening the hybrids of different cross combinations following inoculating Fusarium oxysporum to the tissue cultured plantlets in a greenhouse. By analyzing saponins content in bulbs of a number of lily genotypes with a known Fusarium resistance, it was found that the mutant Cai-74 had a much higher content of saponin than its parents. Highly resistant wild _L. dauricum_ had the highest level (4.59mg/g), followed by the resistant Cai-74 with 4.01mg/g. The resistant OT cultivars &#x2018;Conca d&#x2019;or&#x2019; and &#x2018;Robina&#x2019; had a higher saponins content (3.70 mg/g) and 2.83 mg/g, than the susceptible Oriental lily cultivars &#x2018;Sorbonne&#x2019;, &#x2018;Siberia&#x2019; and &#x2018;Tiber&#x2019;. The hybrid Cai-74 had a different karyotype compared with the normal Lilium Oriental hybrid cultivars. The results suggested that Cai-74 carries a chromosomal variation correlated to Fusarium resistance. Cai-74 might be used as a genetic resource for breeding of Fusarium resistant cultivars of Oriental hybrid lilies

    First data on microflora of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests from the coastlines of Sicily

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    Caretta caretta is threatened by many dangers in the Mediterranean basin, but most are human-related. The purposes of this research were: (i) to investigate microflora in samples from six loggerhead sea turtle nests located on the Sicilian coast and (ii) to understand microbial diversity associated with nests, with particular attention to bacteria and fungi involved in failed hatchings. During the 2016 and 2018 summers, 456 eggs and seven dead hatchling from six nests were collected. We performed bacteriological and mycological analyses on 88 egg samples and seven dead hatchlings, allowing us to isolate: Fusarium spp. (80.6%), Aeromonas hydrophila (55.6%), Aspergillus spp. (27.2%) and Citrobacter freundii (9%). Two Fusarium species were identified by microscopy and were confirmed by PCR and internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between nests and the presence/absence of microflora, whereas no significant differences were observed between eggs and nests. This is the first report that catalogues microflora from C. caretta nests/eggs in the Mediterranean Sea and provides key information on potential pathogens that may affect hatching success. Moreover, our results suggest the need for wider investigations over extensive areas to identify other microflora, and to better understand hatching failures and mortality related to microbial contamination in this important turtle species
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