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    The psychological, psychophysical and ergogenic effects of music in sport: A review and synthesis

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    This is the post-print of this chapter - Copyright @ 2008 RoutledgeWe have presented two complementary conceptual approaches underlying the study and application of music in sport and exercise contexts [103, 104]. We have also established that music can be applied to sports training and competition in many different ways, and have provided 573 initial evidence for a quartic relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. One of the main demonstrated benefits of music is that it enhances psychological state, which has implications for optimising pre-competition mental state and increasing the enjoyment of training activities. Used synchronously, music can boost work output and makes repetitive tasks such as cycling or running more energy efficient. When we embarked upon our programme of research almost two decades ago, our intention was to promote more judicious use of music. The evidence that we have accumulated coupled with the findings of many other researchers from around the world, should allow athletes and practitioners to tap the psychological, psychophysical and ergogenic effects of music with greater precision