85 research outputs found

    Hepatocyte growth factor suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor-induced expression of endothelial ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway

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    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are potent angiogenic factors that have been used clinically to induce angiogenesis. However, concerns have been raised about VEGF because of its proinflammatory actions, which include enhancing the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells. We have examined the possible antiinflammatory effects of HGF on the vasculature. HGF, unlike VEGF, did not alter leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Instead it inhibited VEGF-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and the endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In a skin inflammation model, VEGF-treated mice showed a significant increase of leukocytes infiltrated or adherent to the luminal surface of blood vessels, as compared with vehicle- or HGF-treated mice. The VEGF effect was markedly suppressed by coadministration of HGF. RT-PCR and promoter analysis revealed that HGF downregulated VEGF-mediated expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, these inhibitory effects coincided with suppression of IkappaB kinase activity, and this in turn prevented the activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HGF suppresses VEGF-induced inflammation presumably by inhibiting the endothelial NF-kappaB pathway. This suggests that combined treatment with HGF and VEGF could be superior to treatment with either factor alone for enhancing therapeutic angiogenesis while avoiding inflammation

    A novel small molecule, CU05-1189, targeting the pleckstrin homology domain of PDK1 suppresses VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth by blocking the Akt signaling pathway

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    Inhibition of angiogenesis is considered a promising therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Our previous genetic research showed that the use of a cell-penetrating peptide to inhibit the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) was a viable approach to suppress pathological angiogenesis. Herein, we synthesized and characterized a novel small molecule, CU05-1189, based on our prior study and present evidence for the first time that this compound possesses antiangiogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo. The computational analysis showed that CU05-1189 can interact with the PH domain of PDK1, and it significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells without apparent toxicity. Western blot analysis revealed that the Akt signaling pathway was specifically inhibited by CU05-1189 upon VEGF stimulation, without affecting other VEGF receptor 2 downstream molecules or cytosolic substrates of PDK1, by preventing translocation of PDK1 to the plasma membrane. We also found that CU05-1189 suppressed VEGF-mediated vascular network formation in a Matrigel plug assay. More importantly, CU05-1189 had a good pharmacokinetic profile with a bioavailability of 68%. These results led to the oral administration of CU05-1189, which resulted in reduced tumor microvessel density and growth in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our data suggest that CU05-1189 may have great potential and be a promising lead as a novel antiangiogenic agent for cancer treatment

    FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2

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    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched, as an international collaboration hosted by CERN. This study covers a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), which could, successively, be installed in the same 100 km tunnel. The scientific capabilities of the integrated FCC programme would serve the worldwide community throughout the 21st century. The FCC study also investigates an LHC energy upgrade, using FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the second volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the electron-positron collider FCC-ee. After summarizing the physics discovery opportunities, it presents the accelerator design, performance reach, a staged operation scenario, the underlying technologies, civil engineering, technical infrastructure, and an implementation plan. FCC-ee can be built with today’s technology. Most of the FCC-ee infrastructure could be reused for FCC-hh. Combining concepts from past and present lepton colliders and adding a few novel elements, the FCC-ee design promises outstandingly high luminosity. This will make the FCC-ee a unique precision instrument to study the heaviest known particles (Z, W and H bosons and the top quark), offering great direct and indirect sensitivity to new physics

    FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider – Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2

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    HE-LHC: The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider – Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 4