19 research outputs found

    Vaginal atrophy in breast cancer survivors: attitude and approaches among oncologists

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    Abstract Background Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a relevant problem for breast cancer survivors (BCSs), in particular for those who receive aromatase inhibitors (AIs). We conducted a survey, to assess the attitude of oncologists toward the diagnosis and treatment of VVA in BCSs. Materials and Methods In 2015, 120 computer-assisted Web interviews were performed among breast oncologists. Results According to oncologists' perceptions, 60% of postmenopausal BCSs and 39.4% of premenopausal BCSs will suffer from VVA. Despite that none of the physicians considered VVA as a transient event or a secondary problem in BCSs, only half of the oncologists (48%) directly illustrated VVA to the patients as a possible consequence. Forty-one percent of the oncologists refer BCSs to gynaecologist to define VVA treatment, whereas 35.1% manages it alone. Nonhormonal treatments are preferred by most oncologists (71%). The main reason not to prescribe vaginal estrogen therapy in BCSs is the fear of increased cancer recurrence, the possible interference with tamoxifen, or AIs and the fear of medical litigation. Conclusion VVA is a relevant problem for BCSs. Great effort should be done to correctly inform health care providers about VVA problems and on the different possible available treatments

    Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Are We Ready for Prime Time?

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    The prognosis of invasive cervical cancer (CC) remains poor, with a treatment approach that has remained the same for several decades. Lately, a better understanding of the interactions between the disease and the host immune system has allowed researchers to focus on the employment of immune therapy in various clinical settings. The most advanced strategy is immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with numerous phase II and III trials recently concluded with very encouraging results, assessing single agent therapy, combinations with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Apart from ICIs, several other compounds have gained the spotlight. Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) due to their highly selective tumoricidal effect and manageable adverse effect profile have received the FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation in 2019. The antibody drug conjugate (ADC) Tisotumab-Vedotin has shown activity in metastatic CC relapsed after at least one line of chemotherapy, with a phase III trial currently actively enrolling patients. Moreover, the deeper understanding of the ever-changing immune landscape of CC carcinogenesis has resulted in the development of active therapeutic vaccines. This review highlights the different immunotherapeutic strategies being explored reflects on what role immunotherapy might have in therapeutic algorithms of CC and addresses the role of predictive biomarkers

    Cytoreductive Surgery for Heavily Pre-Treated, Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma: A Two-Center Retrospective Experience

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    Few retrospective studies have shown a benefit in selected patients affected by heavily pre-treated, platinum-resistant ovarian carcinomas (PROCs) who have undergone cytoreduction at relapse. However, the role of tertiary and quaternary cytoreductive surgery is not fully defined. Our aim was to evaluate survival and surgical morbidity and mortality after maximal cytoreduction in this setting. We evaluated all consecutive patients undergoing cytoreduction for platinum-resistance over an 8-year period (2010–2018) in two different centers. Fifty patients (median age 52.5 years, range 34–75) were included; the median number of previous chemotherapy lines was three (range 1–7) and the median number of previous surgeries was one (range 1–4). Completeness of cytoreduction (CC = 0) was achieved in 22 patients (44%). Rates of major operative morbidity and 30-day mortality were 38% and 8%, respectively. Median follow-up was 35 months. The absence of tumor residual (CC = 0) was associated with a significantly better overall survival (OS) compared to the CC > 0 subgroup (median OS 32.9 months (95% CI 21.6–44.2) vs. 4.8 months (95% CI n.a.–9.8), hazard ratio (HR) 4.21 (95% CI 2.07–8.60), p < 0.001). Optimal cytoreduction is feasible and associated with promising OS in selected, heavily pre-treated PROCs. Further prospective studies are required to better define the role of surgery in platinum-resistant disease

    Management of Metastatic Endometrial Cancer: Physicians' Choices Beyond the First Line. A MITO Survey

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    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (EC) therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been changed by the development of a new prognostic molecular classification, the introduction of dostarlimab in microsatellite instability (MSI) high pre-treated advanced EC patients with further expected innovation deriving from lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab regardless MSI status. How this is and will be translated and embedded in the clinical setting in Italy is not known; this is why we developed Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynaecologic malignancies (MITO) survey on the current practice and expected future changes in EC. METHODS: We designed a self-administered, multiple-choice online questionnaire available only for MITO members for one month, starting in April 2021. RESULTS: 75.6% of the respondents were oncologists with a specific focus on gynaecologic malignancies and 73.3% of the respondents declared the availability of clinical trials in second line treatment for advanced EC. The therapeutic algorithm in second line was heterogeneous, being the most frequent choice administering anthracyclines followed by endocrine therapy or enrolling in clinical trials. While more than half of the clinicians declared that they performed the molecular classification, only six/45 respondents (13.3%) ran all the tests needed for it. On the other hand, 80% of them declared regular assessment of MSI status with IHC as recommended. The therapeutic approach in MSI high advanced EC patients has changed since dostarlimab approval. Indeed the most frequent choice in second line has been chemotherapy (53.3%) before its availability, while dostarlimab has been preferred in more than three-fourths of the cases (75.6%) after its approval. As for MSS patients, 77.8% of clinicians would choose lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for them in second line once approved. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the selected sample of respondents from Italian MITO centres showing good knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic innovations in EC, these are not fully implemented in everyday clinics, except for MSI status assessment

    Clinical characteristics and molecular aspects of low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer: a multicenter, observational, retrospective analysis of MITO Group (MITO 22)

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    BACKGROUND: Low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer (LGSC) is a rare disease and few data on the clinical and genomic landscape have been published.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with LGSC between 1996 and 2019 was conducted in MITO centers. Objective Response Rate (ORR) to treatments, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Additionally, the tumor molecular profile of 56 patients was evaluated using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) FoundationOne CDX (Foundation Medicine (R)).RESULTS: A total of 128 patients with complete clinical data and pathologically confirmed diagnosis of LGSC were identified. ORR to first and subsequent therapies were 23.7% and 33.7%, respectively. PFS was 43.9 months (95% CI:32.4-53.1) and OS was 105.4 months (95% CI: 82.7-not reached). The most common gene alterations were: KRAS (n = 12, 21%), CDKN2A/B (n = 11, 20%), NRAS (n = 8, 14%), FANCA (n = 8, 14%), NF1 (n = 7, 13%) and BRAF (n = 6, 11%). Unexpectedly, pathogenetic BRCA1 (n = 2, 4%), BRCA2 (n = 1, 2%) and PALB2 (n = 1, 2%) mutations were found.CONCLUSIONS: MITO 22 suggests that LGSC is an heterogenous disease for both its clinical behavior in response to standard therapies and its molecular alterations. Future prospective studies should test treatments according to biological and molecular tumor's characteristics

    Management of metastatic endometrial cancer: physicians’ choices beyond the first line after approval of checkpoint inhibitors

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    IntroductionEndometrial cancer (EC) represents 3.4% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases and is responsible for 2.1% of all cancer-related deaths. Approximately 10%–15% of women with EC are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease, resulting in a reported 5-year survival rate of only 17% for those with distant metastases. A better understanding of its molecular features has ushered in a new era of immunotherapy for the treatment of EC, allowing for alternative therapeutic approaches, even in cases of advanced disease.MethodsWe administered a multi-choice online survey for Multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynecologic malignancies (MITO) members. The questionnaire was available for 2 months, starting in October 2022. Our objective was to evaluate the current attitude of incorporating molecular characterization of EC into routine clinical practice, appraise the implementation of newly available therapies, and compare the outcomes with the previous survey conducted in April–May 2021 to ascertain the actual changes that have transpired during this recent time period.ResultsThe availability of molecular classification in Italian centers has changed in 1 year. Seventy-five percent of centers performed the molecular classification compared with 55.6% of the previous survey. Although this percentage has increased, only 18% performed all the tests. Significant changes have occurred in the administration of new treatments in EC patients in MITO centers. In 2022, 82.1% of the centers administrated dostarlimab in recurrent or advanced MMR-deficient (dMMR) EC experiencing disease progression after platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, compared to only 24.4% in 2021. In 2022, 85.7% of the centers already administrated the pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib combination as a second-line therapy for MMR-proficient (pMMR) patients with advanced or recurrent EC who had progressed from first-line platinum-based therapy.ConclusionBoth the therapeutic and diagnostic scenarios have changed over the last couple of years in MITO centers, with an increased prescription of immune checkpoint inhibitors and use of the molecular classification
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