44 research outputs found

    A Model for the Topology of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters Determined by the Extracellular Accessibility of Substituted Cysteines

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    AbstractExcitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) function as both substrate transporters and ligand-gated anion channels. Characterization of the transporter's general topology is the first requisite step in defining the structural bases for these distinct activities. While the first six hydrophobic domains can be readily modeled as conventional transmembrane segments, the organization of the C-terminal hydrophobic domains, which have been implicated in both substrate and ion interactions, has been controversial. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of the C-terminal topology of EAAT1 determined by the chemical modification of introduced cysteine residues. Our data support a model in which two membrane-spanning domains flank a central region that is highly accessible to the extracellular milieu and contains at least one reentrant loop domain

    The role of prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP)in hypothalamo-pituitary control mechanisms

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    EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Hormone management of trans women

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    In the previous issue, the authors introduced some principles underlying the medical management of transgender people, before focusing on trans men. In this article they look at the hormonal management of men transitioning to a female gender

    The compressional wave and physical properties of inter-tidal marine sediments

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    New quadratic regression equations for inter-tidal sediments are presented, which relate compressional wave properties (velocity ratio and proportionality constant) to porosity, bulk density and mean grain size. The compressional wave properties were derived from compressional wave velocities and attenuation coefficients measured on inter-tidal sediments from 16 - 100 kHz using common experimental and processing techniques. The regression equations are more robust for velocity ratio than proportionality constant. Discrepancies between the new regression equations and those derived for submerged sediments support the conclusion that the sediment structure of inter-tidal sediments differs from that of submerged sediments. This is attributed to the different physical processes which govern the supply, deposition and dynamics of the sediment in each environment

    Integrating Transwomen and Female Athletes with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) into Elite Competition: The FIMS 2021 Consensus Statement

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    Sport is historically designated by the binary categorization of male and female that conflicts with modern society. Sport's governing bodies should consider reviewing rules determining the eligibility of athletes in the female category as there may be lasting advantages of previously high testosterone concentrations for transwomen athletes and currently high testosterone concentrations in differences in sex development (DSD) athletes. The use of serum testosterone concentrations to regulate the inclusion of such athletes into the elite female category is currently the objective biomarker that is supported by most available scientific literature, but it has limitations due to the lack of sports performance data before, during or after testosterone suppression. Innovative research studies are needed to identify other biomarkers of testosterone sensitivity/responsiveness, including molecular tools to determine the functional status of androgen receptors. The scientific community also needs to conduct longitudinal studies with specific control groups to generate the biological and sports performance data for individual sports to inform the fair inclusion or exclusion of these athletes. Eligibility of each athlete to a sport-specific policy needs to be based on peer-reviewed scientific evidence made available to policymakers from all scientific communities. However, even the most evidence-based regulations are unlikely to eliminate all differences in performance between cisgender women with and without DSD and transwomen athletes. Any remaining advantage held by transwomen or DSD women could be considered as part of the athlete's unique makeup