218 research outputs found

    Application of SPE for selective fractionation of essential oils constituents from plant materials

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    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is simple and inexpensive sample preparation procedure which can be applied for the isolation/fractionation of essential oil compounds from wide variety of samples, such as foodstuffs, biological and environmental. Due to the complex nature of the examined matrices and frequently low concentration level of target components, analytical procedures require the use of initial sample preparation stage. The paper shows the possibility of essential oil components fractionation from different plant materials using SPE method. The results presented in this paper shows that the proposed SPE procedure allows for easy and total fractionation of essential oil constituents (especially low-molecular oxygen compounds) from the sample matrix

    Isomerization of bitter acids during the brewing process

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    Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage. The transformation of bitter acids to iso-α and iso-ß-acids is recognized as the key step of beer production. The paper shows and discusses the transformation kinetics of α- and ß-acids into their iso-form. Following the performed experiments, the largest amounts of the bitter acids isomers are formed in the brewing process carried out at 80oC for more than 100 minutes. The presented data are in good agreements with the knowledge of experienced brewers who learned about the brewing process relying on sensory tests

    Differential Levels of Stress Proteins (HSPs) in Male and Female Daphnia magna in Response to Thermal Stress: A Consequence of Sex-Related Behavioral Differences?

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    In two independent experiments, we compared: (1) water depth selection (and accompanying temperature selection) by male and female Daphnia magna under different kinds of environmental stress, including the presence of filamentous cyanobacteria, the risk of predation from fish, and the presence of toxic compounds; and (2) sex-dependent production of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70, and 90) in response to a sudden change in temperature. Male D. magna selected deep water strata, which offer a relatively stable environment, and thereby avoided the threat of predation and the presence of toxic compounds in surface waters. Correlated with this behavior, males reduce their molecular defenses against stress, such as the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), and do not maintain the physiological machinery that triggers an increase in HSP levels in response to stress. In contrast, female D. magna actively select habitats that offer optimal conditions for growth and production of offspring. Consequently, females are exposed to variable environmental conditions that may be associated with increased stress. To permit survival in these different habitats, D. magna females require molecular mechanisms to protect their cells from rapid changes in stress levels. Thus, they maintain high constitutive levels of the heat shock proteins from HSP 60, 70, and 90 families, and they have the potential to further enhance the production of the majority of these proteins under stress conditions. The results of this study indicate that the separate habitats selected by male and female D. magna result in different patterns of HSP production, leading us to hypothesize that that male and female Daphnia magna adopt different strategies to maximize the fitness of the species

    Effects of zebra mussels on cladoceran communities under eutrophic conditions

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    The purpose of this study was to determine how zebra mussels affected cladoceran community structure under eutrophic conditions. We conducted a mesocosm study where we manipulated the presence of zebra mussels and the presence of large-bodied Daphnia (Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria). We also conducted a complimentary life-table experiment to determine how water from the zebra mussel treatment affected the life history characteristics of the cladoceran species. We anticipated that small- and large-bodied cladoceran species would respond differently to changes in algal quality and quantity under the effects of zebra mussels. Large-bodied Daphnia successfully established in the zebra mussel treatment but failed to grow in the control. We did not observe positive relationships between food concentrations and cladoceran abundances. However, the phosphorus content in the seston indicated that food quality was below the threshold level for large-bodied cladocerans at the beginning of the experiment. We believe that zebra mussels quickly enhanced the phosphorus content in the seston due to the excretion of inorganic phosphorus, thus facilitating the development of large-bodied Daphnia. In conclusion, our results suggest that zebra mussels can alter the phosphorus content of seston in lakes and this can affect the dynamics of crustacean zooplankton

    Human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for propofol

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    BACKGROUND: Propofol is widely used for both short-term anesthesia and long-term sedation. It has unusual pharmacokinetics because of its high lipid solubility. The standard approach to describing the pharmacokinetics is by a multi-compartmental model. This paper presents the first detailed human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for propofol. METHODS: PKQuest, a freely distributed software routine , was used for all the calculations. The "standard human" PBPK parameters developed in previous applications is used. It is assumed that the blood and tissue binding is determined by simple partition into the tissue lipid, which is characterized by two previously determined set of parameters: 1) the value of the propofol oil/water partition coefficient; 2) the lipid fraction in the blood and tissues. The model was fit to the individual experimental data of Schnider et. al., Anesthesiology, 1998; 88:1170 in which an initial bolus dose was followed 60 minutes later by a one hour constant infusion. RESULTS: The PBPK model provides a good description of the experimental data over a large range of input dosage, subject age and fat fraction. Only one adjustable parameter (the liver clearance) is required to describe the constant infusion phase for each individual subject. In order to fit the bolus injection phase, for 10 or the 24 subjects it was necessary to assume that a fraction of the bolus dose was sequestered and then slowly released from the lungs (characterized by two additional parameters). The average weighted residual error (WRE) of the PBPK model fit to the both the bolus and infusion phases was 15%; similar to the WRE for just the constant infusion phase obtained by Schnider et. al. using a 6-parameter NONMEM compartmental model. CONCLUSION: A PBPK model using standard human parameters and a simple description of tissue binding provides a good description of human propofol kinetics. The major advantage of a PBPK model is that it can be used to predict the changes in kinetics produced by variations in physiological parameters. As one example, the model simulation of the changes in pharmacokinetics for morbidly obese subjects is discussed