14 research outputs found

    Chordal force distribution determines systolic mitral leaflet configuration and severity of functional mitral regurgitation

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    AbstractOBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the chordae tendineae force distribution on systolic mitral leaflet geometry and mitral valve competence invitro.BACKGROUNDFunctional mitral regurgitation is caused by changes in several elements of the valve apparatus. Interaction among these have to comply with the chordal forcedistribution defined by the chordal coapting forces (FC) created by the transmitral pressure difference, which close the leaflets and the chordal tethering forces(FT) pulling the leaflets apart.METHODSPorcine mitral valves (n = 5) were mounted in a left ventricular model where leading edge chordal forces measured by dedicated miniature force transducers werecontrolled by changing left ventricular pressure and papillary muscle position. Chordae geometry and occlusional leaflet area (OLA) needed to cover the leaflet orifice for a givenleaflet configuration were determined by two-dimensional echo and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Occlusional leaflet area was used as expression for incomplete leafletcoaptation. Regurgitant fraction (RF) was measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter.RESULTSMixed procedure statistics revealed a linear correlation between the sum of the chordal net forces, ∑[FC−FT]s, and OLA with regression coefficient (minimum − maximum) beta = −115 to −65 [mm2/N]; p< 0.001 and RF (beta = −0.06 to −0.01 [%/N]; p < 0.001). Increasing FTby papillary muscle malalignment restrictedleaflet mobility, resulting in a tented leaflet configuration due to an apical and posterior shift of the coaptation line. Anterior leaflet coapting forces increased due to mitralleaflet remodeling, which generated a nonuniform regurgitant orifice area.CONCLUSIONSAltered chordal force distribution caused functional mitral regurgitation based on tented leaflet configuration as observed clinically


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    Mitral- og tricuspidalklapsygdomme

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    Reverse remodeling of tricuspid valve morphology and function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients following pulmonary thromboendarterectomy:a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and invasive hemodynamic study

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    BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in tricuspid annulus (TA) and tricuspid valve (TV) morphology among chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients before and 12 months after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PEA) and compare these findings to normal control subjects. METHODS: 20 CTEPH patients and 20 controls were enrolled in the study. The patients were examined with echocardiography, right heart catherization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging prior to PEA and 12 months after. RESULTS: Right atrium (RA) volume was significantly reduced from baseline to 12 months after PEA (30 ± 9 vs 23 ± 5 ml/m(2), p < 0.005). TA annular area in systole remained unchanged (p = 0.11) and was comparable to controls. The leaflet area, tenting volume and tenting height in systole were significantly increased at baseline but decreased significantly with comparable values to controls after 12 months (p < 0.005). There was correlation between the changes of right ventricular-pulmonary artery coupling and changes of TV tenting height (r = − 0.54, p = 0.02), TV tenting volume (r = − 0.73, p < 0.001) and TV leaflet area (− 0.57, p = 0.01) from baseline to 12 months after PEA. Tricuspid regurgitation jet area/RA area was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced from baseline (30 ± 13%) to 12 months after PEA (9 ± 10%). CONCLUSION: In CTEPH patients selected for PEA, TV tenting height, volume and valve area are significantly increased whereas annulus size and shape are less affected. The alterations in TV morphology are fully reversed after PEA and correlates to improvements of right ventricular-pulmonary arterial coupling

    The prevalence of moderate mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing CABG

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    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in the contemporary CABG population. We also aimed to correlate the effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) of any regurgitant mitral valve in patients with coronary artery disease with the semiquantitative integrated scale of IMR. Design. From March 15 through June 15, 2006, 510 consecutive CABG patients in three tertiary centres were included in the study. All patients showing any sign of mitral regurgitation (MR) at the referring hospital underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic estimation of the degree of MR using the integrated scale (1-4) and ERO. Results. IMR was found in 141 patients (28%). The prevalence of moderate 2+ or worse IMR was 4% (95% CI; 2.5-6.1%) and the ERO corresponding to 2+ IMR or more ranged from 5 to 30 mm2. Fourteen patients had an ERO between 15-30 mm2. Conclusions. According to our study, patients with moderate IMR, defined as an ERO between 15-30 mm2, account for only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.5-4.7%) of a non-emergency CABG population

    Moderate mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing CABG - the MoMIC trial

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    Background. The presence of mild to moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) marks a significantly reduced long-term survival and increased hospitalizations due to heart-failure. However, it is common practice in many institutions to refrain from repairing the mitral valve in these patients. There are no available conclusive data to support this practice, and thus there is a need for an adequately powered randomized trial. Study design. The Moderate Mitral Regurgitation In Patients Undergoing CABG (MoMIC) trial is the first international multi-center, large-scale study to clarify whether moderate IMR in CABG patients should be corrected. A total of 550 CABG patients with moderate IMR are to be randomized to treatment of either CABG alone or CABG plus mitral valve correction. The primary end point is a composite end point of mortality and rehospitalization for heart failure at five years. The inclusion and randomization of patients started in February 2008. Implication. If correction of moderate IMR in CABG patients proves to be the superior strategy, most patients should be treated accordingly