34,050 research outputs found

    Development of electrical switchgear for space nuclear electrical systems Quarterly progress report, 4 Dec. 1964 - 4 Mar. 1965

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    Alternating current circuit breakers and direct current engine contactors for space nuclear electrical system

    High temperature circuit breaker

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    Alternating current circuit breaker is suitable for reliable long-term service at 1000 deg F in the vacuum conditions of outer space. Construction materials are resistant to nuclear radiation and vacuum welding. Service test conditions and results are given

    A model-based constraint on CO<sub>2</sub> fertilisation

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    We derive a constraint on the strength of CO2 fertilisation of the terrestrial biosphere through a “top-down” approach, calibrating Earth system model parameters constrained by the post-industrial increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. We derive a probabilistic prediction for the globally averaged strength of CO2 fertilisation in nature, for the period 1850 to 2000 AD, implicitly net of other limiting factors such as nutrient availability. The approach yields an estimate that is independent of CO2 enrichment experiments. To achieve this, an essential requirement was the incorpo- ration of a land use change (LUC) scheme into the GENIE Earth system model. Using output from a 671-member ensemble of transient GENIE simulations, we build an emulator of the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration change since the preindustrial period. We use this emulator to sample the 28-dimensional input parameter space. A Bayesian calibration of the emulator output suggests that the increase in gross primary productivity (GPP) in response to a doubling of CO2 from preindustrial values is very likely (90 % confidence) to exceed 20 %, with a most likely value of 40–60 %. It is important to note that we do not represent all of the possible contributing mechanisms to the terrestrial sink. The missing processes are subsumed into our calibration of CO2 fertilisation, which therefore represents the combined effect of CO2 fertilisation and additional missing processes. If the missing processes are a net sink then our estimate represents an upper bound. We derive calibrated estimates of carbon fluxes that are consistent with existing estimates. The present-day land–atmosphere flux (1990–2000) is estimated at −0.7 GTC yr−1 (likely, 66 % confidence, in the range 0.4 to −1.7 GTC yr−1). The present-day ocean–atmosphere flux (1990–2000) is estimated to be −2.3 GTC yr−1 (likely in the range −1.8 to −2.7 GTC yr−1). We estimate cumulative net land emissions over the post-industrial period (land use change emissions net of the CO2 fertilisation and climate sinks) to be 66 GTC, likely to lie in the range 0 to 128 GTC

    First Calculation of Hyperon Axial Couplings from Lattice QCD

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    In this work, we report the first lattice calculation of hyperon axial couplings, using the 2+1-flavor MILC configurations and domain-wall fermion valence quarks. Both the Σ\Sigma and Ξ\Xi axial couplings are computed for the first time in lattice QCD. In particular we find that gΣΣ=0.450(21)stat(27)systg_{\Sigma\Sigma} = 0.450(21)_{\rm stat}(27)_{\rm syst} and gΞΞ=0.277(15)stat(19)systg_{\Xi\Xi} = -0.277(15)_{\rm stat}(19)_{\rm syst}.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Cross-sectional and plan-view cathodoluminescence of GaN partially coalesced above a nanocolumn array

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    The optical properties of GaN layers coalesced above an array of nanocolumns have important consequences for advanced optoelectronic devices. GaN nanocolumns coalesced using a nanoscale epitaxial overgrowth technique have been investigated by high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging. Plan-view microscopy reveals partially coalesced GaN layers with a sub-μm scale domain structure and distinct grain boundaries, which is mapped using CL spectroscopy showing high strain at the grain boundaries. Cross-sectional areas spanning the partially coalesced GaN and underlying nanocolumns are mapped using CL, revealing that the GaN bandedge peak shifts by about 25 meV across the partially coalesced layer of ∼2 μm thick. The GaN above the nanocolumns remains under tensile strain, probably due to Si out-diffusion from the mask or substrate. The cross-sectional data show how this strain is reduced towards the surface of the partially coalesced layer, possibly due to misalignment between adjacent partially coalesced regions

    Magnetic properties of strongly disordered electronic systems

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    We present a unified, global perspective on the magnetic properties of strongly disordered electronic systems, with special emphasis on the case where the ground state is metallic. We review the arguments for the instability of the disordered Fermi liquid state towards the formation of local magnetic moments, and argue that their singular low temperature thermodynamics are the ``quantum Griffiths'' precursors of the quantum phase transition to a metallic spin glass; the local moment formation is therefore not directly related to the metal-insulator transition. We also review the the mean-field theory of the disordered Fermi liquid to metallic spin glass transition and describe the separate regime of ``non-Fermi liquid'' behavior at higher temperatures near the quantum critical point. The relationship to experimental results on doped semiconductors and heavy-fermion compounds is noted.Comment: 25 pages; Contribution to the Royal Society Discussion Meeting on "The Metal-Non Metal Transition in Macroscopic and Microscopic Systems", March 5-6, 199

    Flow of water in trees

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    Development of electrical switchgear for space nuclear electrical systems quarterly progress report no. 1, dec. 4, 1964 - mar. 4, 1965

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    Alternating current circuit breaker and direct current engine contactors for space - vacuum interrupter and contact material, interrupter and actuator design, and test facility selectio
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