1,132 research outputs found

    Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry: Workshop Summary

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    Summary of the Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop held at CERN: https://indico.cern.ch/event/1208783/This document presents a summary of the 2023 Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop hosted by CERN. The workshop brought together experts from around the world to discuss the exciting developments in large-scale atom interferometer (AI) prototypes and their potential for detecting ultralight dark matter and gravitational waves. The primary objective of the workshop was to lay the groundwork for an international TVLBAI proto-collaboration. This collaboration aims to unite researchers from different institutions to strategize and secure funding for terrestrial large-scale AI projects. The ultimate goal is to create a roadmap detailing the design and technology choices for one or more km-scale detectors, which will be operational in the mid-2030s. The key sections of this report present the physics case and technical challenges, together with a comprehensive overview of the discussions at the workshop together with the main conclusions

    Interaction of bacteria and inhalable particulate matter in respiratory infectious diseases caused by bacteria

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    Air pollution is a major global health issue and a significant risk factor for respiratory infections. Air pollution containing inhalable particulate matter (PM), including Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP), Urban Particles (UP), tobacco smoke particles, dust particles, ambient Black Carbon (BC), household smoke, etc., emitted from vehicles, industry, construction, agriculture waste burning, cooking, etc., exerts a negative effect on human health. The exposure of inhalable PM to the upper airways, often colonized by opportunistic microbes, represents a unique risk for respiratory infections. Several epidemiological studies reported that PM exposure increases susceptibility to, and severity of, lower respiratory infections like pneumonia or other important diseases such as otitis media, asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD). It has been suggested that inhalable PM exposure damages airway epithelial cells, alters the immune response, affects the microbiota, and, as a result, opportunist or pathogenic bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus) establishes respiratory infections. PM and bacteria interaction alters bacteria physiology and enhances bacterial proliferation and biofilm mode of growth. However, the exact mechanism pertaining to how the PM reverts the opportunistic bacteria of the nasopharynx to a pathogenic state is not well understood. In the present review, we have focused on understanding the airborne PM and bacteria interaction that makes humans more susceptible to otherwise harmless bacteria, especially those in the upper airways. Further, we have provided an overview of potential mechanisms triggered by air pollutants to induce bacterial infectious diseases

    Evaluation of Articular Manifestations in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients and its Association with Liver Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study from Rural Indian State of Manipur

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    Introduction: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the main culprit for liver diseases worldwide. In Manipur its incidence is increasing, mainly due to blood borne transmission through intravenous drugs users. Among the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection-arthropathy (joint pain, swelling and stiffness) is most common. Exact mechanism of arthropathy are not well elucidated but are probably connected with the participation of the immune system and due to the replicating virus in the affected tissues, organ systems. Aim: To determine the articular manifestations in HCV infected patients and to study the association between articular manifestations and liver fibrosis Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 hepatitis C infected patients above 18 years of age who attended Medicine OPD, gastroenterology and liver clinic or admitted in the General Medicine wards, Regional institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India. Blood samples were collected for Complete Blood Count, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, C Reactive Protein, Liver function test, Renal function test, HCV, Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Antinuclear Antibody (ANA), anti-ds DNA. Ultrasound (USG) whole abdomen and X-rays of involved joints were done when indicated. Markers for liver stiffness/fibrosis, {Aspartate Aminotransferases (AST) to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI)} score, The fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and AST/Alanine Transaminase (ALT) ratio were calculated and compared. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) (IBM) version 21.0 was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square and Fischer’s-exact test were used. Results: A total of 100 hepatitis C infected patients were enrolled in the present study. Majority of the study subjects were males (63%) under 40 years of age (69%). Eighty-four (84%) patients were intravenous drug users. Joint pain, swelling and stiffness was present in 37 (37%), 31 (31%) and 24 (24%), respectively. Around 36 (36%), 45 (45%) and 29 (29%) of the participants had significant fibrosis with respect to FIB 4 score, APRI and USG finding, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of joint pain was 37% in this study. Females and younger age group were more associated with articular manifestation. The present study concluded that patient with articular manifestation were seen to have significant fibrosis with respect to FIB 4 score, APRI and USG finding, AST/ALT

    Extraction of pectin from Ethiopian prickly pear fruit peel and its potency for preparing of cellulose-reinforced biofilm

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    The objective of this research was to extract and characterize the pectin from the fruit peels of Ethiopian prickly pears (EPP) (Opuntia ficus-indica) using microwave assisted method. Solution pH and microwave potential were optimized using different pH values (1, 3, and 4) and power (300, 400, and 500 W), respectively, to extract ameliorated pectin yield. The pectin yield for EPP varied between 2.3 and 10.0 %. At a pH of 1.0 with 400 microwave intensity, the highest yield was seen. The extracted pectin from EPP had a 25.16 % ash content; however, the pectin sample contained less water and weighed less than the control sample. Further, transforming the acquired pectin from EPP was used to prepare biofilm reinforced by cellulose. Film was prepared using the casting method. It was aimed to provide a new function to EPP waste for preparing the biofilms by developing with the use of cellulose-reinforced modification to ameliorate the mechanical property Therefore, with further optimization and improvements, EPP-F could be used for nonstructural applications, such as a sustainable food packaging material

    Impact of different storage containers on seed quality parameters of eggplant (Solanum melongena) during storage

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    The present study was carried out at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana to assess the impact of natural ageing and different storage containers on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seed quality during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 winter (rabi) seasons. Genetically pure seeds were used and stored in cloth and polythene bags. Seed quality parameters (germination, seedling length, seedling dry weight, and seed vigour) were monitored at various intervals (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months). Freshly harvested seeds (control) exhibited superior quality, with higher germination rates, longer seedlings, greater seedling dry weight, and improved vigour indices compared to stored seeds over 18 months. Seed quality deteriorated with longer storage, reaching its lowest point at 18 months. Among storage containers, cloth bags showed a faster decline in seed quality compared to polythene bags (>700 gauge). In field experiments, one-year stored seeds from polythene bags outperformed those from cloth bags in terms of seed establishment percentage, mean emergence time, and germination speed. In conclusion, polythene bags maintained acceptable seed germination (meeting IMSCS standards) for up to 15 months, while cloth bags maintained it for up to 12 months. Therefore, polythene bags are a better choice for preserving eggplant seed quality during storage, particularly for longer durations

    A key exchange system for secure data coordination in healthcare systems

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    To explore the coordination problem of the “gatekeeper” medical system, a referral game model between general hospitals and community hospitals within the system was established. Two non-competitive and competitive systems methods were modeled. The optimal referral threshold strategy and contract form under the service payment contract cooperation model. The conclusion shows that reducing the service cost of unit personnel in the system can effectively improve the system utility. Introducing competition can reduce the referral rate and promote the first consultation in community hospitals. The service payment contracts of non-competitive and competitive systems under different scales are feasible to achieve system coordination. The coordination efficiency of small-scale settings in competitive strategies is higher than that of large-scale environments. In the design of medical systems, competition cannot be avoided. Existing, setting up multiple small competing hospitals can bring higher social efficiency

    ddRAD sequencing based genotyping of six indigenous dairy cattle breeds of India to infer existing genetic diversity and population structure

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    Abstract The present investigation aimed to identify genome wide SNPs and to carry out diversity and population structure study using ddRAD-seq based genotyping of 58 individuals of six indigenous milch cattle breeds (Bos indicus) such as Sahiwal, Gir, Rathi, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi and Kankrej of India. A high percentage of reads (94.53%) were mapped to the Bos taurus (ARS-UCD1.2) reference genome assembly. Following filtration criteria, a total of 84,027 high quality SNPs were identified across the genome of 6 cattle breeds with the highest number of SNPs observed in Gir (34,743), followed by Red Sindhi (13,092), Kankrej (12,812), Sahiwal (8956), Tharparkar (7356) and Rathi (7068). Most of these SNPs were distributed in the intronic regions (53.87%) followed by intergenic regions (34.94%) while only 1.23% were located in the exonic regions. Together with analysis of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.373), Tajima’s D (D value ranging from − 0.295 to 0.214), observed heterozygosity (HO ranging from 0.464 to 0.551), inbreeding coefficient (FIS ranging from − 0.253 to 0.0513) suggested for the presence of sufficient within breed diversity in the 6 major milch breeds of India. The phylogenetic based structuring, principal component and admixture analysis revealed genetic distinctness as well as purity of almost all of the 6 cattle breeds. Overall, our strategy has successfully identified thousands of high-quality genome wide SNPs that will further enrich the Bos indicus representation basic information about genetic diversity and structure of 6 major Indian milch cattle breeds which should have implications for better management and conservation of valuable indicine cattle diversity

    Short Term Load Forecasting for Smart Grids Using Apache Spark and a Modified Transformer Model

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    Smart grid is an advanced electrical grid that enables more efficient distribution of electricity. It counters many of the problems presented by renewable energy sources such as variability in production through techniques like load forecasting and dynamic pricing. Smart grid generates massive amounts of data through smart meters, this data is used to forecast future load to adjust distribution. To process all this data, big data analysis is necessary. Most existing schemes use Apache Hadoop for big data processing and various techniques for load forecasting that include methods based on statistical theory, machine learning and deep learning. This paper proposes using Apache Spark for big data analysis and a modified version of the transformer model for forecasting load profiles of households. The modified transformer model has been tested against several state-of-the-art machine learning models. The proposed scheme was tested against several baseline and state-of-the-art machine learning models and evaluated in terms of the RMSE, MAE, MedAE and R2 scores. The obtained results show that the proposed model has better performance in terms of RMSE and R2 which are the preferred metrics when evaluating a regression model on data with a large number of outliers

    Combining ability and heterosis studies for grain iron and zinc concentrations in pearl millet [Cenchrus americanus (L). Morrone]

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    Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency has been identified as a major food-related health issue, affecting two billion people globally. Efforts to enhance the Fe and Zn content in food grains through plant breeding are an economic and sustainable solution to combat micronutrient deficiency in resource-poor populace of Asia and Africa. Pearl millet, Cenchrus americanus (L). Morrone, considered as a hardy nutri-cereal, is the major food crop for millions of people of these nations. As an effort to enhance its grain mineral content, an investigation was conducted using line × tester analysis to generate information on the extent of heterosis, gene action, combining ability for grain yield potential, and grain mineral nutrients (Fe and Zn). The partitioning of variance attributable to parents indicated that the lines and testers differed significantly for the traits studied. For most of the attributes, hybrids that were superior to the parents in the desired direction in terms of per se performance were identified. The analysis of combining ability variance indicated the preponderance of both additive and non-additive genetic effects. Thus, reciprocal recurrent selection can be used to develop a population with high–grain Fe and Zn contents. The Fe and Zn content in grain exhibited a highly significant and positive association between them, whereas the Fe and Zn contents individually showed a negative, albeit weak, correlation with grain yield and a moderate positive relation with grain weight. This indicates that mineral nutrient contents in grains can be improved without significant compromise on yield. The consistency of these trends across the environment suggests that these findings could be directly used as guiding principles for the genetic enhancement of Fe and Zn grain content in pearl millet
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