122,898 research outputs found

    Intelligent pigments and plastics for CO2 detection

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    A novel CO2 intelligent pigment is incorporated into a thermoplastic polymer to create a long-lived CO2-sensitive plastic film which is characterised and then compared to a traditional solvent-based CO2 indicator film

    Evaluation of NRA tracking studies. Future projects and technical development

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    Fish tracking is a valuable technique for the provision of detailed information on the behaviour patterns of individual fish especially during estuarine and riverine migration. 2. Tracking studies help in the provision of a comprehensive description of the variety offish behaviour patterns in response to factors such as water flow, obstructions and water quality. 3. There are advantages to be gained by complementing fish tracking studies with data collected from fish counters and vice versa. 4. An overall evaluation of NRA fish tracking projects is presented in the wider context of NRA strategic research objectives. 5. The requirement for future development of tracking equipment, improved data analysis techniques, better communication and more immediate report preparation is identified. 6. Individual project evaluation is given for NRA (or the appropriate Water Authority predecessor) tracking studies conducted on the Ribble estuary, the River Tamar, River Torridge, Rivers Test and Itchen, River Lodden, the Welsh River Dee, River Glaslyn, River Taff, River Tawe, River Tywi, River Usk, Rivers Avon and Stour and the River Frome. 7. An outline for future strategic research is provided which identifies particular areas for study:- i) Identification of environmental factors which control the entry of fish into rivers. ii) Improvement of the understanding of the relationship between water flow and upstream movement of salmonids. iii) Examination of the detailed movements and behaviour of fish in relation to obstructions. iv) Closer definition of water quality requirements for salmonid fish. v) Definition of habitat preferences of salmonids in rivers. vi) Subsidiary topics such as the movements of non-salmonid fish and the downstream migration of kelts and juvenile salmonids

    Solving for multi-class using orthogonal coding matrices

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    A common method of generalizing binary to multi-class classification is the error correcting code (ECC). ECCs may be optimized in a number of ways, for instance by making them orthogonal. Here we test two types of orthogonal ECCs on seven different datasets using three types of binary classifier and compare them with three other multi-class methods: 1 vs. 1, one-versus-the-rest and random ECCs. The first type of orthogonal ECC, in which the codes contain no zeros, admits a fast and simple method of solving for the probabilities. Orthogonal ECCs are always more accurate than random ECCs as predicted by recent literature. Improvments in uncertainty coefficient (U.C.) range between 0.4--17.5% (0.004--0.139, absolute), while improvements in Brier score between 0.7--10.7%. Unfortunately, orthogonal ECCs are rarely more accurate than 1 vs. 1. Disparities are worst when the methods are paired with logistic regression, with orthogonal ECCs never beating 1 vs. 1. When the methods are paired with SVM, the losses are less significant, peaking at 1.5%, relative, 0.011 absolute in uncertainty coefficient and 6.5% in Brier scores. Orthogonal ECCs are always the fastest of the five multi-class methods when paired with linear classifiers. When paired with a piecewise linear classifier, whose classification speed does not depend on the number of training samples, classifications using orthogonal ECCs were always more accurate than the the remaining three methods and also faster than 1 vs. 1. Losses against 1 vs. 1 here were higher, peaking at 1.9% (0.017, absolute), in U.C. and 39% in Brier score. Gains in speed ranged between 1.1% and over 100%. Whether the speed increase is worth the penalty in accuracy will depend on the application

    Replacement of Cakile edentula with Cakile maritima in New South Wales and on Lord Howe Island

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    Two species of Cakile (Brassicaceae) have been introduced to Australia and the genus has been a common feature on the beaches of NSW for over 130 years; Cakile edentula has been present for at least 148 years (in NSW since about 1870), while Cakile maritima arrived approximately 114 years ago, (in NSW since about 1969). Collections at CANB and NSW confirm that since around 1970 plants more like Cakile maritima have almost entirely replaced Cakile edentula along the NSW coast. A similar phenomenon is reported for Lord Howe Island

    The Identities of Private International Law: Lessons from the U.S. and EU Revolutions

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    This article, first presented as part of a conference entitled What is private international law? , responds to this question through analysis of four different identities through which private international law has been viewed. It begins by exploring two contrasting classical approaches, under which private international law is concerned with the international ordering of state power, or with the national recognition of private rights. It then turns to examine the US and EU private international law revolutions, and the very different further identities of private international law which have emerged as a consequence of each. After reflecting critically on the experiences of these revolutions, the article offers some concluding thoughts as to how the identity or identities of private international law can or should be constructed, arguing that there are valuable lessons and potentially propitious elements in each of the four examined identities

    Colonialism, christians and sport : the catholic church and football in Goa, 1883-1951

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    The chapter uses the development of football in Goa, the Portuguese colony in India until 1961, as a case study with which to critique existing histories of sport and colonialism. The start point of the article is that when taken together existing studies of football in particular, and to an extent sport in general, in colonial contexts bear a range of similarities. Broadly speaking a model can be drawn from them, one in which Christian missionary activity and colonial government projects act to introduce and encourage western sports among colonised populations who then eventually adopt and adapt the games. The Goa example offers a fresh perspective as it argues that while elements of the story of football there are familiar from these other studies, the role of indigenous agents in propagating the game at its earliest stages is crucial to understanding how the sport took off and became embedded in local society and culture

    'Commemorating a Disputed Past: Football Club and Supporters' Group War Memorials in the Former Yugoslavia

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    This article documents the existence of numerous football-related war memorials throughout the former Yugoslavia. Utilizing photographic evidence of these monuments, plaques and other methods of memorialization, it illuminates the ways in which those involved in the game have written the deeds of their fallen members into the historical record, often harnessing these sacrifices in the service of a variety of political causes in the process. These commemorative gestures include socialist patriotic memorials erected in the aftermath of the Second World War Partisan victory, as well as monuments and murals created in honour of football supporters who went into battle as paramilitaries and members of incipient national armies during the dissolution wars of the 1990s. It is argued that the deeds of the fallen have been elevated, and at times manipulated, while the creativity of the latest wave of football remembrance is arguably heavily influenced by the traditional epic poetry and mythologized histories of the region. The fact that these disparate memorials have survived from various historical periods means that the region's built environment offers problematic and conflicting accounts of Yugoslav football's violent past. Memorials which honour impossibly pure socialist heroes coexist awkwardly alongside those dedicated to supporters who gave their lives in pursuit of ethnically exclusive states. In the case of one desecrated monument, these distinct periods are somewhat paradoxically remembered by the same symbolic object