8,922 research outputs found

    Re-convolving the compositional landscape of primary and recurrent glioblastoma reveals prognostic and targetable tissue states

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    Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) diffusely infiltrates the brain and intermingles with non-neoplastic brain cells, including astrocytes, neurons and microglia/myeloid cells. This complex mixture of cell types forms the biological context for therapeutic response and tumor recurrence. We used single-nucleus RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics to determine the cellular composition and transcriptional states in primary and recurrent glioma and identified three compositional ‘tissue-states’ defined by cohabitation patterns between specific subpopulations of neoplastic and non-neoplastic brain cells. These tissue-states correlated with radiographic, histopathologic, and prognostic features and were enriched in distinct metabolic pathways. Fatty acid biosynthesis was enriched in the tissue-state defined by the cohabitation of astrocyte-like/mesenchymal glioma cells, reactive astrocytes, and macrophages, and was associated with recurrent GBM and shorter survival. Treating acute slices of GBM with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor depleted the transcriptional signature of this pernicious tissue-state. These findings point to therapies that target interdependencies in the GBM microenvironment

    Risk Stratification for Management of Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma of the Central Nervous System

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    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare meningeal tumor. Given the absence of prospective or randomized data, there are no standard indications for radiotherapy. Recently, the NRG Oncology and EORTC cooperative groups successfully accrued and completed the first prospective trials evaluating risk-adapted adjuvant radiotherapy strategies for meningiomas. Using a similar framework, we sought to develop prognostic risk categories that may predict the survival benefit associated with radiotherapy, using two large national datasets. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Database (NCDB) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) databases for all newly diagnosed cases of SFT/HPC within the CNS. Risk categories were created, as follows: low risk—grade 1, with any extent of resection (EOR) and grade 2, with gross–total resection; intermediate risk—grade 2, with biopsy/subtotal resection; high risk—grade 3 with any EOR. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to determine the association of risk categories with overall and cause-specific survival. We then determined the association of radiotherapy with overall survival in the NCDB, stratified by risk group. Results: We identified 866 and 683 patients from the NCDB and SEER databases who were evaluated, respectively. In the NCDB, the 75% survival times for low- (n = 312), intermediate- (n = 239), and high-risk (n = 315) patients were not reached, 86 months (HR 1.60 (95% CI 1.01–2.55)), and 55 months (HR 2.56 (95% CI 1.68–3.89)), respectively. Our risk categories were validated for overall and cause-specific survival in the SEER dataset. Radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in the high- (HR 0.46 (0.29–0.74)) and intermediate-risk groups (HR 0.52 (0.27–0.99)) but not in the low-risk group (HR 1.26 (0.60–2.65)). The association of radiotherapy with overall survival remained significant in the multivariable analysis for the high-risk group (HR 0.55 (0.34–0.89)) but not for the intermediate-risk group (HR 0.74 (0.38–1.47)). Similar results were observed in a time-dependent landmark sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: Risk stratification based on grade and EOR is prognostic of overall and cause-specific survival for SFT/HPCs of the CNS and performs better than any individual clinical factor. These risk categories appear to predict the survival benefit from radiotherapy, which is limited to the high-risk group and, potentially, the intermediate-risk group. These data may serve as the basis for a prospective study evaluating the management of meningeal SFT/HPCs

    Cell-type specific and multiscale dynamics of human focal seizures in limbic structures

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    \ua9 The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]. The relationship between clinically accessible epileptic biomarkers and neuronal activity underlying the transition to seizure is complex, potentially leading to imprecise delineation of epileptogenic brain areas. In particular, the pattern of interneuronal firing at seizure onset remains under debate, with some studies demonstrating increased firing and others suggesting reductions. Previous study of neocortical sites suggests that seizure recruitment occurs upon failure of inhibition, with intact feedforward inhibition in non-recruited territories. We investigated whether the same principle applies in limbic structures. We analysed simultaneous electrocorticography (ECoG) and neuronal recordings of 34 seizures in a cohort of 19 patients (10 male, 9 female) undergoing surgical evaluation for pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. A clustering approach with five quantitative metrics computed from ECoG and multiunit data was used to distinguish three types of site-specific activity patterns during seizures, which at times co-existed within seizures. Overall, 156 single units were isolated, subclassified by cell-type and tracked through the seizure using our previously published methods to account for impacts of increased noise and single-unit waveshape changes caused by seizures. One cluster was closely associated with clinically defined seizure onset or spread. Entrainment of high-gamma activity to low-frequency ictal rhythms was the only metric that reliably identified this cluster at the level of individual seizures (P < 0.001). A second cluster demonstrated multi-unit characteristics resembling those in the first cluster, without concomitant high-gamma entrainment, suggesting feedforward effects from the seizure. The last cluster captured regions apparently unaffected by the ongoing seizure. Across all territories, the majority of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons reduced (69.2%) or ceased firing (21.8%). Transient increases in interneuronal firing rates were rare (13.5%) but showed evidence of intact feedforward inhibition, with maximal firing rate increases and waveshape deformations in territories not fully recruited but showing feedforward activity from the seizure, and a shift to burst-firing in seizure-recruited territories (P = 0.014). This study provides evidence for entrained high-gamma activity as an accurate biomarker of ictal recruitment in limbic structures. However, reduced neuronal firing suggested preserved inhibition in mesial temporal structures despite simultaneous indicators of seizure recruitment, in contrast to the inhibitory collapse scenario documented in neocortex. Further study is needed to determine if this activity is ubiquitous to hippocampal seizures or indicates a \u27seizure-responsive\u27 state in which the hippocampus is not the primary driver. If the latter, distinguishing such cases may help to refine the surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Risk Stratification for Management of Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma of the Central Nervous System

    No full text
    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare meningeal tumor. Given the absence of prospective or randomized data, there are no standard indications for radiotherapy. Recently, the NRG Oncology and EORTC cooperative groups successfully accrued and completed the first prospective trials evaluating risk-adapted adjuvant radiotherapy strategies for meningiomas. Using a similar framework, we sought to develop prognostic risk categories that may predict the survival benefit associated with radiotherapy, using two large national datasets. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Database (NCDB) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) databases for all newly diagnosed cases of SFT/HPC within the CNS. Risk categories were created, as follows: low risk—grade 1, with any extent of resection (EOR) and grade 2, with gross–total resection; intermediate risk—grade 2, with biopsy/subtotal resection; high risk—grade 3 with any EOR. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to determine the association of risk categories with overall and cause-specific survival. We then determined the association of radiotherapy with overall survival in the NCDB, stratified by risk group. Results: We identified 866 and 683 patients from the NCDB and SEER databases who were evaluated, respectively. In the NCDB, the 75% survival times for low- (n = 312), intermediate- (n = 239), and high-risk (n = 315) patients were not reached, 86 months (HR 1.60 (95% CI 1.01–2.55)), and 55 months (HR 2.56 (95% CI 1.68–3.89)), respectively. Our risk categories were validated for overall and cause-specific survival in the SEER dataset. Radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in the high- (HR 0.46 (0.29–0.74)) and intermediate-risk groups (HR 0.52 (0.27–0.99)) but not in the low-risk group (HR 1.26 (0.60–2.65)). The association of radiotherapy with overall survival remained significant in the multivariable analysis for the high-risk group (HR 0.55 (0.34–0.89)) but not for the intermediate-risk group (HR 0.74 (0.38–1.47)). Similar results were observed in a time-dependent landmark sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: Risk stratification based on grade and EOR is prognostic of overall and cause-specific survival for SFT/HPCs of the CNS and performs better than any individual clinical factor. These risk categories appear to predict the survival benefit from radiotherapy, which is limited to the high-risk group and, potentially, the intermediate-risk group. These data may serve as the basis for a prospective study evaluating the management of meningeal SFT/HPCs

    Long-term outcomes of mesial temporal laser interstitial thermal therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy and subsequent surgery for seizure recurrence: a multi-centre cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is a minimally invasive alternative to surgical resection for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Reported rates of seizure freedom are variable and long-term durability is largely unproven. Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) remains an option for patients with MRgLITT treatment failure. However, the safety and efficacy of this staged strategy is unknown. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective cohort study included 268 patients consecutively treated with mesial temporal MRgLITT at 11 centres between 2012 and 2018. Seizure outcomes and complications of MRgLITT and any subsequent surgery are reported. Predictive value of preoperative variables for seizure outcome was assessed. RESULTS: Engel I seizure freedom was achieved in 55.8% (149/267) at 1 year, 52.5% (126/240) at 2 years and 49.3% (132/268) at the last follow-up ≥1 year (median 47 months). Engel I or II outcomes were achieved in 74.2% (198/267) at 1 year, 75.0% (180/240) at 2 years and 66.0% (177/268) at the last follow-up. Preoperative focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures were independently associated with seizure recurrence. Among patients with seizure recurrence, 14/21 (66.7%) became seizure-free after subsequent ATL and 5/10 (50%) after repeat MRgLITT at last follow-up≥1 year. CONCLUSIONS: MRgLITT is a viable treatment with durable outcomes for patients with drug-resistant mTLE evaluated at a comprehensive epilepsy centre. Although seizure freedom rates were lower than reported with ATL, this series represents the early experience of each centre and a heterogeneous cohort. ATL remains a safe and effective treatment for well-selected patients who fail MRgLITT

    Highlights From the Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society 2022

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    With more than 6000 attendees between in-person and virtual offerings, the American Epilepsy Society Meeting 2022 in Nashville, felt as busy as in prepandemic times. An ever-growing number of physicians, scientists, and allied health professionals gathered to learn a variety of topics about epilepsy. The program was carefully tailored to meet the needs of professionals with different interests and career stages. This article summarizes the different symposia presented at the meeting. Basic science lectures addressed the primary elements of seizure generation and pathophysiology of epilepsy in different disease states. Scientists congregated to learn about anti-seizure medications, mechanisms of action, and new tools to treat epilepsy including surgery and neurostimulation. Some symposia were also dedicated to discuss epilepsy comorbidities and practical issues regarding epilepsy care. An increasing number of patient advocates discussing their stories were intertwined within scientific activities. Many smaller group sessions targeted more specific topics to encourage member participation, including Special Interest Groups, Investigator, and Skills Workshops. Special lectures included the renown Hoyer and Lombroso, an ILAE/IBE joint session, a spotlight on the impact of Dobbs v. Jackson on reproductive health in epilepsy, and a joint session with the NAEC on coding and reimbursement policies. The hot topics symposium was focused on traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy. A balanced collaboration with the industry allowed presentations of the latest pharmaceutical and engineering advances in satellite symposia

    The American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Position Statement on Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

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    Magnetic resonance image-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is a novel tool in the neurosurgical armamentarium for the management of drug-resistant epilepsy. Given the recent introduction of this technology, the American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (ASSFN), which acts as the joint section representing the field of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery on behalf of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, provides here the expert consensus opinion on evidence-based best practices for the use and implementation of this treatment modality. Indications for treatment are outlined, consisting of failure to respond to, or intolerance of, at least 2 appropriately chosen medications at appropriate doses for disabling, localization-related epilepsy in the setting of well-defined epileptogenic foci, or critical pathways of seizure propagation accessible by MRgLITT. Applications of MRgLITT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma, along with its contraindications in the treatment of epilepsy, are discussed based on current evidence. To put this position statement in perspective, we detail the evidence and authority on which this ASSFN position statement is based

    Agroecological transformation for sustainable food systems : Insight on France-CGIAR research

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    This 26th dossier d’Agropolis is devoted to research and partnerships in agroecology. The French Commission for International Agricultural Research (CRAI) and Agropolis International, on behalf of CIRAD, INRAE and IRD and in partnership with CGIAR, has produced this new issue in the ‘Les dossiers d’Agropolis international’ series devoted to agroecology. This publication has been produced within the framework of the Action Plan signed by CGIAR and the French government on February 4th 2021 to strengthen French collaboration with CGIAR, where agroecology is highlighted as one of the three key priorities (alongside climate change, nutrition and food systems)
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