335 research outputs found

    In vivo evaluation of chemical biopersistence of nonfibrous inorganic particles.

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    The lung's response to deposited particles may depend upon the physical-chemical properties of the particles, the amount initially deposited, and the persistence of the particles. Clearance involves mucociliary transport as well as the action of phagocytic cells in nonciliated regions of the lung. Depending on the animal species studied, particle type, and particle load, inorganic materials are ingested by macrophages on alveolar surfaces with half-times of 0.6 to 7 hr. Particle-laden macrophages may migrate to airways, but we believe that an important mechanism of clearance is the dissolution of particles within alveolar macrophages and the subsequent translocation of dissolved materials to the blood. Particle dissolution in situ has long been recognized but was often thought to be carried out extracellularly in the alveolar lining layer, airway mucus, or interstitial fluid. However, many particles such as cobalt oxide or iron oxide which dissolve very little in simulated lung fluid, are solubilized more rapidly within alveolar macrophages. Clearance of particles from the lungs can be followed by a number of techniques, both invasive and noninvasive. The approaches vary in expense and resolution, and can be directed toward quantifying mechanical removal of particles versus their intracellular dissolution. Noninvasive methods permit repeated measurements of particle retention in the lungs of the same animal or human and thus allow replications and serial measurements. Greater precision with respect to the sites of retention and redistribution is achieved with quantitative morphometric methods that utilize fixation followed by physically dividing the respiratory tract into individual pieces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS

    Intraphagolysosomal pH in canine and rat alveolar macrophages: flow cytometric measurements.

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    Intracellular dissolution of inhaled inorganic particles is an important clearance mechanism of the lung and occurs in phagolysosomal vacuoles of phagocytes. Flow cytometric measurements of intraphagolysosomal pH in alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from beagle dogs, Wistar rats, and from a baboon were made using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amorphous silica particles (FSP). AM were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. FSP were phagocytized by AM in cell suspensions incubated in full media for 24 hr up to 6 days. Dual laser flow cytometry was performed and six-parameter list mode data were recorded from forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence intensities at 530 nm excited at 457 nm and 488 nm as well as logarithmic fluorescence intensity at wavelengths 630 nm excited at 488 nm. In this way it was possible to discriminate viable AM with phagocytized FSP from lysing AM with phagocytized FSP and from cells without FSP and from free FSP. Viable cells were distinguished from lysing cells by staining with propidium iodide immediately before the flow cytometric measurement. A calibration curve for the pH value was determined from FSP suspended in buffered media at pH values ranging from 3.5 to 7.5. First flow cytometrical results indicated that after an incubation time of 24 hr, the mean intraphagolysosomal pH of viable AM was 4.7 +/- 0.3 for dogs and 5.1 +/- 0.5 for rats. The intraphagolysosomal pH of the baboon AM was 4.5

    Improved ventricular function during inhalation of PGI(2) aerosol partly relies on enhanced myocardial contractility

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    Inhaled prostacyclin (PGI(2)) aerosol induces selective pulmonary vasodilation. Further, it improves right ventricular ( RV) function, which may largely rely on pulmonary vasodilation, but also on enhanced myocardial contractility. We investigated the effects of the inhaled PGI(2) analogs epoprostenol (EPO) and iloprost (ILO) on RV function and myocardial contractility in 9 anesthetized pigs receiving aerosolized EPO (25 and 50 ng center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) and, consecutively, ILO (60 ng center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) for 20 min each. We measured pulmonary artery pressure ( PAP), RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and RV end-diastolic-volume (RV-EDV), and left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume-relation (end-systolic elastance, E-es). EPO and ILO reduced PAP, increased RVEF and reduced RVEDV. E-es was enhanced during all doses tested, which reached statistical significance during EPO25ng and ILO, but not during EPO50ng. PGI(2) aerosol enhances myocardial contractility in healthy pigs, contributing to improve RV function. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in the human lung: effect of smoking and disease

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    BACKGROUND: Magnetic microparticles being ingested by alveolar macrophages can be used as a monitor for intracellular phagosome motions and cytoskeletal mechanical properties. These studies can be performed in the human lung after voluntary inhalation. The influence of cigarette smoking and lung diseases on cytoskeleton dependent functions was studied. METHODS: Spherical 1.3 μm diameter ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (40 – 65 years), 15 patients with sarcoidosis (SAR), 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 18 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB). The retained particles were magnetized and aligned in an external 100 mT magnetic field. All magnetized particles induce a weak magnetic field of the lung, which was detected by a sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensor. Cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages and intracellular transport cause stochastic magnetic dipole rotations, which are reflected in a decay of the magnetic lung field, called relaxation. Directed phagosome motion was induced in a weak magnetic twisting field. The resistance of the cytoplasm to particle twisting was characterized by the viscosity and the stiffness (ratio between stress to strain) of the cytoskeleton. RESULTS: One week after particle inhalation and later macrophage motility (relaxation) and cytoskeletal stiffness was not influenced by cigarette smoking, neither in healthy subjects, nor in the patients. Patients with IPF showed in tendency a faster relaxation (p = 0.06). Particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. The viscous shear was dominant, and only 27% of the shear recoiled and reflected viscoelastic properties. In patients with IPF, the stiffness was reduced by 60% (p < 0.02). An analysis of the shear rate and stress dependence of particle twisting allows correlating the rheological compartments to cytoskeletal subunits, in which microtubules mediate the pure viscous (non-recoverable) shear and microfilaments mediate the viscoelastic (recoverable) behavior. The missing correlation between relaxation and particle twisting shows that both stochastic and directed phagosome motion reflect different cytoskeletal mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Faster relaxation and a soft cytoskeleton in patients with IPF indicate alterations in cytoskeleton dependent functions of alveolar macrophages, which may cause dysfunction's in the alveolar defense, like a slower migration, a retarded phagocytosis, a disturbed phagosome lysosome fusion and an impaired clearance

    Rapid translocation of nanoparticles from the lung airspaces to the body

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    Nano-size particles show promise for pulmonary drug delivery, yet their behavior after deposition in the lung remains poorly understood. In this study, a series of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles were systematically varied in chemical composition, shape, size and surface charge, and their biodistribution and elimination were quantified in rat models after lung instillation. We demonstrate that nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameter (HD) less than ≈34 nm and a noncationic surface charge translocate rapidly from the lung to mediastinal lymph nodes. Nanoparticles of HD < 6 nm can traffic rapidly from the lungs to lymph nodes and the bloodstream, and then be subsequently cleared by the kidneys. We discuss the importance of these findings for drug delivery, air pollution and carcinogenesis

    Increased Soil Frost Versus Summer Drought as Drivers of Plant Biomass Responses To Reduced Precipitation: Results from A Globally-Coordinated Field Experiment

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    Reduced precipitation treatments often are used in field experiments to explore the effects of drought on plant productivity and species composition. However, in seasonally snow-covered regions reduced precipitation also reduces snow cover, which can increase soil frost depth, decrease minimum soil temperatures and increase soil freeze-thaw cycles. Therefore, in addition to the effects of reduced precipitation on plants via drought, freezing damage to overwintering plant tissues at or below the soil surface could further affect plant productivity and relative species abundances during the growing season. We examined the effects of both reduced rainfall (via rain-out shelters) and reduced snow cover (via snow removal) at 13 sites globally (primarily grasslands) within the framework of the International Drought Experiment, a coordinated distributed experiment. Plant cover was estimated at the species level and aboveground biomass was quantified at the functional group level. Among sites, we observed a negative correlation between the snow removal effect on minimum soil temperature and plant biomass production the next growing season. Three sites exhibited significant rain-out shelter effects on plant productivity, but there was no correlation among sites between the rain-out shelter effect on minimum soil moisture and plant biomass. There was no interaction between snow removal and rain-out shelters for plant biomass, although these two factors only exhibited significant effects simultaneously for a single site. Overall, our results reveal that reduced snowfall, when it decreases minimum soil temperatures, can be an important component of the total effect of reduced precipitation on plant productivity
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