21 research outputs found

    Physiological and pathophysiological control of glucagon secretion by pancreatic α-cells

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    Glycemic control in diabetes is restored by therapeutic manipulation of cytokines that regulate beta cell stress

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    In type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia is present when an increased demand for insulin, typically due to insulin resistance, is not met as a result of progressive pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. This defect in beta cell activity is typically characterized by impaired insulin biosynthesis and secretion, usually accompanied by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We demonstrate that multiple inflammatory cytokines elevated in diabetic pancreatic islets induce beta cell oxidative and ER stress, with interleukin-23 (IL-23), IL-24 and IL-33 being the most potent. Conversely, we show that islet-endogenous and exogenous IL-22, by regulating oxidative stress pathways, suppresses oxidative and ER stress caused by cytokines or glucolipotoxicity in mouse and human beta cells. In obese mice, antibody neutralization of IL-23 or IL-24 partially reduced beta cell ER stress and improved glucose tolerance, whereas IL-22 administration modulated oxidative stress regulatory genes in islets, suppressed ER stress and inflammation, promoted secretion of high-quality efficacious insulin and fully restored glucose homeostasis followed by restitution of insulin sensitivity. Thus, therapeutic manipulation of immune regulators of beta cell stress reverses the hyperglycemia central to diabetes pathology. © 2015 Nature America, Inc

    Signalling danger: endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in pancreatic islet inflammation.

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    Protein synthesis is increased by several-fold in stimulated pancreatic beta cells. Synthesis and folding of (pro)insulin takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and beta cells trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) to upgrade the functional capacity of the ER. Prolonged or excessive UPR activation contributes to beta cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes, but there is another side of the UPR that may be of particular relevance for autoimmune type 1 diabetes, namely, the cross-talk between the UPR and innate immunity/inflammation. Recent evidence, discussed in this review, indicates that both saturated fats and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines trigger the UPR in pancreatic beta cells. The UPR potentiates activation of nuclear factor κB, a key regulator of inflammation. Two branches of the UPR, namely IRE1/XBP1s and PERK/ATF4/CHOP, mediate the UPR-induced sensitisation of pancreatic beta cells to the proinflammatory effects of cytokines. This can contribute to the upregulation of local inflammatory mechanisms and the aggravation of insulitis. The dialogue between the UPR and inflammation may provide an explanation for the parallel increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and type 1 diabetes.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tReviewSCOPUS: re.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Death Protein 5 and p53-Upregulated Modulator of Apoptosis Mediate the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mitochondrial Dialog Triggering Lipotoxic Rodent and Human beta-Cell Apoptosis.

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    Environmental factors such as diets rich in saturated fats contribute to dysfunction and death of pancreatic beta-cells in diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is elicited in beta-cells by saturated fatty acids. Here we show that palmitate-induced beta-cell apoptosis is mediated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. By microarray analysis, we identified a palmitate-triggered ER stress gene expression signature and the induction of the BH3-only proteins death protein 5 (DP5) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). Knockdown of either protein reduced cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in rat and human beta-cells. DP5 induction depends on inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-induced activating transcription factor (ATF3) binding to its promoter. PUMA expression is also PERK/ATF3-dependent, through tribbles 3 (TRB3)-regulated AKT inhibition and FoxO3a activation. DP5(-/-) mice are protected from high fat diet-induced loss of glucose tolerance and have twofold greater pancreatic beta-cell mass. This study elucidates the crosstalk between lipotoxic ER stress and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis that causes beta-cell death in diabetes

    Pancreatic ß-cells activate a JunB/ATF3-dependent survival pathway during inflammation

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    Destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells by local autoimmune inflammation is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes. Histochemical analysis of pancreases from non-obese diabetic mice indicated activation of the transcription factor JunB/AP-1 (activator protein-1) after autoimmune infiltration of the islets. In vitro studies demonstrated that the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ induce JunB expression as a protective mechanism against apoptosis in both human and rodent β-cells. The gene network affected was studied by microarray analysis showing that JunB regulates nearly 20% of the cytokine-modified β-cell genes, including the transcription factor ATF3. Direct transcriptional induction of ATF3 by JunB is a key event for β-cell survival after TNF-α+IFN-γ treatment. Moreover, pharmacological upregulation of JunB/ATF3 via increased cAMP protected rodent primary β-cells and human islet cells against pro-inflammatory mediators. These results were confirmed in genetically modified islets derived from Ubi-JunB transgenic mice. Our findings identify ATF3 as a novel downstream target of JunB in the survival mechanism of β-cells under inflammatory stress.Oncogene advance online publication, 15 August 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.353

    Inflammatory Pathways Linked to Beta Cell Demise in Diabetes

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