131 research outputs found

    Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: Contrast Mechanisms and Clinical Applications.

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    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a recently developed MRI technique for quantifying the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues. It first uses the frequency shift in the MRI signal to map the magnetic field profile within the tissue. The resulting field map is then used to determine the spatial distribution of the underlying magnetic susceptibility by solving an inverse problem. The solution is achieved by deconvolving the field map with a dipole field, under the assumption that the magnetic field is a result of the superposition of the dipole fields generated by all voxels and that each voxel has its unique magnetic susceptibility. QSM provides improved contrast to noise ratio for certain tissues and structures compared to its magnitude counterpart. More importantly, magnetic susceptibility is a direct reflection of the molecular composition and cellular architecture of the tissue. Consequently, by quantifying magnetic susceptibility, QSM is becoming a quantitative imaging approach for characterizing normal and pathological tissue properties. This article reviews the mechanism generating susceptibility contrast within tissues and some associated applications

    Learning-based Single-step Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Reconstruction Without Brain Extraction

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    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) estimates the underlying tissue magnetic susceptibility from MRI gradient-echo phase signal and typically requires several processing steps. These steps involve phase unwrapping, brain volume extraction, background phase removal and solving an ill-posed inverse problem. The resulting susceptibility map is known to suffer from inaccuracy near the edges of the brain tissues, in part due to imperfect brain extraction, edge erosion of the brain tissue and the lack of phase measurement outside the brain. This inaccuracy has thus hindered the application of QSM for measuring the susceptibility of tissues near the brain edges, e.g., quantifying cortical layers and generating superficial venography. To address these challenges, we propose a learning-based QSM reconstruction method that directly estimates the magnetic susceptibility from total phase images without the need for brain extraction and background phase removal, referred to as autoQSM. The neural network has a modified U-net structure and is trained using QSM maps computed by a two-step QSM method. 209 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 11 to 82 years were employed for patch-wise network training. The network was validated on data dissimilar to the training data, e.g. in vivo mouse brain data and brains with lesions, which suggests that the network has generalized and learned the underlying mathematical relationship between magnetic field perturbation and magnetic susceptibility. AutoQSM was able to recover magnetic susceptibility of anatomical structures near the edges of the brain including the veins covering the cortical surface, spinal cord and nerve tracts near the mouse brain boundaries. The advantages of high-quality maps, no need for brain volume extraction and high reconstruction speed demonstrate its potential for future applications.Comment: 26 page

    Joint Rigid Motion Correction and Sparse-View CT via Self-Calibrating Neural Field

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    Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) has widely received attention in Sparse-View Computed Tomography (SVCT) reconstruction tasks as a self-supervised deep learning framework. NeRF-based SVCT methods represent the desired CT image as a continuous function of spatial coordinates and train a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) to learn the function by minimizing loss on the SV sinogram. Benefiting from the continuous representation provided by NeRF, the high-quality CT image can be reconstructed. However, existing NeRF-based SVCT methods strictly suppose there is completely no relative motion during the CT acquisition because they require \textit{accurate} projection poses to model the X-rays that scan the SV sinogram. Therefore, these methods suffer from severe performance drops for real SVCT imaging with motion. In this work, we propose a self-calibrating neural field to recover the artifacts-free image from the rigid motion-corrupted SV sinogram without using any external data. Specifically, we parametrize the inaccurate projection poses caused by rigid motion as trainable variables and then jointly optimize these pose variables and the MLP. We conduct numerical experiments on a public CT image dataset. The results indicate our model significantly outperforms two representative NeRF-based methods for SVCT reconstruction tasks with four different levels of rigid motion.Comment: 5 page

    Spontaneous pregnancy after tracking ovulation during menstruation: A case report of a woman with premature ovarian insufficiency and repeated failure of in vitro fertilization

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    The diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is devastating in women of reproductive age because of the small chance of spontaneous pregnancy. Here, we report a very rare case with POI and repeated failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) where the final result was natural fertilization following guidance to have sexual intercourse during menstruation as ovulation was monitored. Estradiol valerate was used to increase the thickness of the endometrium and stop the menstrual bleeding. There was a serum level of 208.44 IU/L of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) 14 days after the ovulation. Later, a series of transvaginal ultrasounds also indicated a normal-appearing intra-uterine pregnancy. A healthy baby girl was delivered at term by means of cesarean section. Our report suggested that although the chance of spontaneous pregnancy is relatively low in patients with POI with repeated IVF failures, as long as ovulation does occur, even if it happens during menstruation, natural pregnancy is still worth trying with a series of proper and personalized treatments
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