7,113 research outputs found

    The business-social policy nexus: Corporate power and corporate inputs into social policy

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    It is increasingly impossible to understand and explain the shape and delivery of contemporary social policy unless we consider the role of business. Several factors have been at work here. First, many of the changes in social policy introduced since the 1970s have been in response either to business demands or more general concerns about national competitiveness and the needs of business. Second, globalisation has increased corporate power within states, leading to transformations in social and fiscal policies. Third, business has been incorporated into the management of many areas of the welfare state by governments keen to control expenditure and introduce private sector values into services. Fourth, welfare services, from hospitals to schools, have been increasingly opened up to private markets. Despite all this, the issues of business influence and involvement in social policy has been neglected in the literature. This article seeks to place corporate power and influence centre-stage by outlining and critically reflecting on the place of business within contemporary welfare states, with a particular focus on the UK. Business, it argues, is increasingly important to welfare outcomes and needs to be taken into account more fully within the social policy literature

    On the relationship between inflation persistence and temporal aggregation

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    This paper examines the impact of temporal aggregation on alternative definitions of inflation persistence. Using the CPI and the core PCE deflator of the US, our results show that temporal aggregation from the monthly to the quarterly to the annual frequency induces persistence in the inflation series.

    The Changing Economic Status of Disabled Women, 1982–1991: Trends and Their Determinants

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    This study provides an assessment of the intertemporal economic well-being of a representative sample of women who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) in 1980–81. We compare their economic circumstances over the 1982–1991 period with those of disabled men who also began receiving SSDI in those years and with those of a matched sample of nondisabled women who had sufficient work experience for benefit eligibility should they have become disabled. In 1982, the new SSDI women beneficiaries were a relatively poor segment of U.S. society: one quarter of them lived in poverty and 48 percent had incomes below 150 percent of the poverty line. As of 1991, over one-half of these disabled women lived in families with income below 150 percent of the poverty line. Social Security benefits to disabled women have played an important, and growing, role in sustaining economic status. Nevertheless, the level of well-being of these women lies substantially below that of the comparison groups. We statistically relate the poverty status of these new female recipients to sociodemographic factors that would be expected to contribute to lower levels of well-being, and we simulate the effect of Social Security benefits in reducing poverty and replacing earnings. We suggest a number of SSDI-related policy changes that could, at low cost, reduce poverty among the poorest women.

    The Changing Economic Status of U.S. Disabled Men: Trends and Their Determinants, 1982–1991

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    In this paper, we track the level of economic well-being of the population of men who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits in 1980–81 from the time just after they became beneficiaries (in 1982) to 1991, nearly a decade later. We present measures of the economic well-being of disabled individuals and their nondisabled peers as indicators of the relative economic position of these two groups. These measures also provide an intertemporal comparison of well-being and hardship as disabled persons and their nondisabled peers age and retire. We first show several economic well-being indicators for this group of new male recipients of disability benefits in 1982 and 1991. Then, we compare their economic position to that of a matched group of nondisabled males with sufficient work histories to have been disability-insured, that is, eligible for SSDI benefits had they been unable to engage in substantial gainful employment. Because labor market changes over this decade have led to a relative deterioration in the position of younger and less-educated workers, we compare men with disabilities to those without disabilities and distinguish different age and educational levels within the groups. In studying these comparative trends in well-being, we focus on the prevalence of poverty and its correlates. We conclude by assessing the antipoverty effectiveness of Social Security income support for both younger and older men who became SSDI recipients in 1980–81.

    Negotiating the Neighborhood: The Role of Neighborhood Associations in Urban Planning Processes

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    To promote collaborative urban planning, the United States Federal Government requires that city and regional governments consult communities affected by planning processes. Neighborhood associations were originally created to engage community members in local social justice issues in order to meet this mandate. Relying on these organizations raises questions about whether they fulfill their potential: what role do community members play in urban planning? Do neighborhood associations feel like they participate effectively in the urban planning process? How do these associations perceive the extent to which the government uses their input? To address these questions, this study examines perceptions of urban planning as held by residents of North Minneapolis. In-depth interviews with residents involved with neighborhood associations reveal that associations face three main difficulties in urban planning processes: neighborhood associations are unable to completely represent their communities, residents involved with associations mistrust government entities, and government entities are disengaged from community needs. These findings demonstrate that neighborhood associations encounter barriers that quiet their collective voice when communicating with urban planners about the wants and needs of their community

    A Case Study of the Effects of a Teaching Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Life Science and the Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

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    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a teaching method on academic achievement in life science and on students' use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies by grade eight students at Bangkok Christian International School. The method of teaching was adapted from Zimmerman's cyclic model of self-regulated learning. Strategies for promoting students' self-regulated learning strategies were identified through the literature review and applied into the study group: metacognitive strategies such as planning, monitoring, and regulating, and resource management strategies such as time management and study environment management. One sample and paired sample t-tests were used to analyze the effects of the teaching method on students' academic achievement in Life Science and use of self-regulated learning strategies respectively. The results of the study and recommendations to incorporate SRL more into traditional classrooms are discussed
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