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    Real-time single base specific detection of the Haemonchus contortus S168T variant associated with levamisole resistance using loop-primer endonuclease cleavage loop mediated isothermal amplification

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    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic haematophagous nematode that primarily affects small ruminants and causes significant economic loss to the global livestock industry. Treatment of haemonchosis typically relies on broad-spectrum anthelmintics, resistance to which is an important cause of treatment failure. Resistance to levamisole remains less widespread than to other major anthelmintic classes, prompting the need for more effective and accurate surveillance to maintain its efficacy. Loop-primer endonuclease cleavage loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LEC-LAMP) is a recently developed diagnostic method that facilitates multiplex target detection with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) specificity and portable onsite testing. In this study, we designed a new LEC-LAMP assay and applied it to detect the levamisole resistance marker S168T in H. contortus. We explored multiplexing probes for both the resistant S168T and the susceptible S168 alleles in a single-tube assay. We then included a generic probe to detect the acr-8 gene in the multiplex assay, which could facilitate the quantification of both resistance markers and overall genetic material from H. contortus in a single step. Our results showed promising application of these technologies, demonstrating a proof-of-concept assay which is amenable to detection of resistance alleles within the parasite population, with the potential for multiplex detection, and point-of-care application enabled by lateral flow end-point detection. However, further optimisation and validation is necessary

    Search for vector-boson resonances decaying into a top quark and a bottom quark using pp collisions at s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector