2,287 research outputs found

    Peripheral temperature gradient screening of high-Z impurities in optimised 'hybrid' scenario H-mode plasmas in JET-ILW

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    Screening of high-Z (W) impurities from the confined plasma by the temperature gradient at the plasma periphery of fusion-grade H-mode plasmas has been demonstrated in the JET-ILW (ITER-like wall) tokamak. Through careful optimisation of the hybrid-scenario, deuterium plasmas with sufficient heating power (greater than or similar to 32 MW), high enough ion temperature gradients at the H-mode pedestal top can be achieved for the collisional, neo-classical convection of the W impurities to be directed outwards, expelling them from the confined plasma. Measurements of the W impurity fluxes between and during edge-localised modes (ELMs) based on fast bolometry measurements show that in such plasmas there is a net efflux (loss) between ELMs but that ELMs often allow some W back into the confined plasma. Provided steady, high-power heating is maintained, this mechanism allows such plasmas to sustain high performance, with an average D-D neutron rate of similar to 3.2 x 10(16) s(-1) over a period of similar to 3 s, after an initial overshoot (equivalent to a D-T fusion power of similar to 9.4 MW), without an uncontrolled rise in W impurity radiation, giving added confidence that impurity screening by the pedestal may also occur in ITER, as has previously been predicted (Dux et al 2017 Nucl. Mater. Energy 12 28-35)

    Comparison of ion cyclotron wall conditioning discharges in hydrogen and helium in JET

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    Postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for malignancy: results from the Recurrence After Whipple’s (RAW) study

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    Background Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. Surgeons should have a sound understanding of the potential complications for consenting and benchmarking purposes. Furthermore, preoperative identification of high-risk patients can guide patient selection and potentially allow for targeted prehabilitation and/or individualized treatment regimens. Using a large multicentre cohort, this study aimed to calculate the incidence of all PD complications and identify risk factors. Method Data were extracted from the Recurrence After Whipple’s (RAW) study, a retrospective cohort study of PD outcomes (29 centres from 8 countries, 2012–2015). The incidence and severity of all complications was recorded and potential risk factors for morbidity, major morbidity (Clavien–Dindo grade > IIIa), postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) and 90-day mortality were investigated. Results Among the 1348 included patients, overall morbidity, major morbidity, POPF, PPH and perioperative death affected 53 per cent (n = 720), 17 per cent (n = 228), 8 per cent (n = 108), 6 per cent (n = 84) and 4 per cent (n = 53), respectively. Following multivariable tests, a high BMI (P = 0.007), an ASA grade > II (P II patients were at increased risk of major morbidity (P < 0.0001), and a raised BMI correlated with a greater risk of POPF (P = 0.001). Conclusion In this multicentre study of PD outcomes, an ASA grade > II was a risk factor for major morbidity and a high BMI was a risk factor for POPF. Patients who are preoperatively identified to be high risk may benefit from targeted prehabilitation or individualized treatment regimens

    Predictive JET current ramp-up modelling using QuaLiKiz-neural-network

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    This work applies the coupled JINTRAC and QuaLiKiz-neural-network (QLKNN) model on the ohmic current ramp-up phase of a JET D discharge. The chosen scenario exhibits a hollow T-e profile attributed to core impurity accumulation, which is observed to worsen with the increasing fuel ion mass from D to T. A dynamic D simulation was validated, evolving j, n(e), T-e, T-i, n(Be), n(Ni), and n(W) for 7.25 s along with self-consistent equilibrium calculations, and was consequently extended to simulate a pure T plasma in a predict-first exercise. The light impurity (Be) accounted for Z(eff) while the heavy impurities (Ni, W) accounted for Prad. This study reveals the role of transport on the Te hollowing, which originates from the isotope effect on the electron-ion energy exchange affecting T-i. This exercise successfully affirmed isotopic trends from previous H experiments and provided engineering targets used to recreate the D q-profile in T experiments, demonstrating the potential of neural network surrogates for fast routine analysis and discharge design. However, discrepancies were found between the impurity transport behaviour of QuaLiKiz and QLKNN, which lead to notable T-e hollowing differences. Further investigation into the turbulent component of heavy impurity transport is recommended

    Paging the Clinical Informatics Community: Respond STAT to Dobbs v Jackson's Women's Health Organization

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    If the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was a wake-up call that clinical informatics and digital health play vital roles in our future, the 2022 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization (Dobbs)[1] is a blaring alarm. Dobbs, which overturned Roe v Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, allows states to individually regulate access to abortion. This ruling has triggered the enforcement of existing state laws that ban or restrict abortion and efforts to pass similar new laws

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19