2,588 research outputs found

    Valsartan for attenuating disease evolution in early sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the design of the Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (VANISH) trial

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    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by sarcomere gene mutations, resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and increased risk of sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Studies in mouse models of sarcomeric HCM demonstrated that early treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) reduced development of LVH and fibrosis. In contrast, prior human studies using ARBs for HCM have targeted heterogeneous adult cohorts with well-established disease. The VANISH trial is testing the safety and feasibility of disease-modifying therapy with an ARB in genotyped HCM patients with early disease. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial is being conducted in sarcomere mutation carriers, 8 to 45 years old, with HCM and no/minimal symptoms, or those with early phenotypic manifestations but no LVH. Participants are randomly assigned to receive valsartan 80 to 320 mg daily (depending on age and weight) or placebo. The primary endpoint is a composite of 9 z-scores in domains representing myocardial injury/hemodynamic stress, cardiac morphology, and function. Total z-scores reflecting change from baseline to final visits will be compared between treatment groups. Secondary endpoints will assess the impact of treatment on mutation carriers without LVH, and analyze the influence of age, sex, and genotype. Conclusions: The VANISH trial is testing a new strategy of disease modification for treating sarcomere mutation carriers with early HCM, and those at risk for its development. In addition, further insight into disease mechanisms, response to therapy, and phenotypic evolution will be gained


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    Nifedipine in Scleroderma Ulcerations

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    Cutaneous ulcerations may be due to a variety of causes, including vasculitis. infections, arterial insufficiency, and microvascular damage. The net effect is diminished blood flow to the skin. Nifedipine, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to improve cutaneous blood How and to alleviate reactive vasospastic ischemia (Raynaud's phenomenon). The authors report an ischemic ulcer of scleroderma showing visible improvement with nifedipine therapy.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65515/1/j.1365-4362.1984.tb01233.x.pd

    Edoxaban vs. warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation on amiodarone: a subgroup analysis of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial

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    Background In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, the higher-dose edoxaban (HDE) regimen had a similar incidence of ischaemic stroke compared with warfarin, whereas a higher incidence was observed with the lower-dose regimen (LDE). Amiodarone increases edoxaban plasma levels via P-glycoprotein inhibition. The current pre-specified exploratory analysis was performed to determine the effect of amiodarone on the relative efficacy and safety profile of edoxaban. Methods and results At randomization, 2492 patients (11.8%) were receiving amiodarone. The primary efficacy endpoint of stroke or systemic embolic event was significantly lower with LDE compared with warfarin in amiodarone treated patients vs. patients not on amiodarone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 0.36-0.99 and HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.40, respectively; P interaction <0.01). In patients randomized to HDE, no such interaction for efficacy was observed (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.46-1.17 vs. HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, P interaction = 0.446). Major bleeding was similar in patients on LDE (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.21-0.59 vs. HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.46-0.61, P interaction = 0.131) and HDE (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.38 vs. HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.90, P interaction = 0.392) when compared with warfarin, independent of amiodarone use. Conclusions Patients randomized to the LDE treated with amiodarone at the time of randomization demonstrated a significant reduction in ischaemic events vs. warfarin when compared with those not on amiodarone, while preserving a favourable bleeding profile. In contrast, amiodarone had no effect on the relative efficacy and safety of HD

    Effect of Oral Iron Repletion on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency: The IRONOUT HF Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Importance: Iron deficiency is present in approximately 50% of patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and is an independent predictor of reduced functional capacity and mortality. However, the efficacy of inexpensive readily available oral iron supplementation in heart failure is unknown. Objective: To test whether therapy with oral iron improves peak exercise capacity in patients with HFrEF and iron deficiency. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of patients with HFrEF ( Interventions: Oral iron polysaccharide (n = 111) or placebo (n = 114), 150 mg twice daily for 16 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a change in peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2) from baseline to 16 weeks. Secondary end points were change in 6-minute walk distance, plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, and health status as assessed by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ, range 0-100, higher scores reflect better quality of life). Results: Among 225 randomized participants (median age, 63 years; 36% women) 203 completed the study. The median baseline peak V̇o2 was 1196 mL/min (interquartile range [IQR], 887-1448 mL/min) in the oral iron group and 1167 mL/min (IQR, 887-1449 mL/min) in the placebo group. The primary end point, change in peak V̇o2 at 16 weeks, did not significantly differ between the oral iron and placebo groups (+23 mL/min vs -2 mL/min; difference, 21 mL/min [95% CI, -34 to +76 mL/min]; P = .46). Similarly, at 16 weeks, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in changes in 6-minute walk distance (-13 m; 95% CI, -32 to 6 m), NT-proBNP levels (159; 95% CI, -280 to 599 pg/mL), or KCCQ score (1; 95% CI, -2.4 to 4.4), all P \u3e .05. Conclusions and Relevance: Among participants with HFrEF with iron deficiency, high-dose oral iron did not improve exercise capacity over 16 weeks. These results do not support use of oral iron supplementation in patients with HFrEF. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02188784

    Staged cardiovascular magnetic resonance for differential diagnosis of Troponin T positive patients with low likelihood for acute coronary syndrome

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT) is a cardio-specific indicator of myocardial necrosis due to ischemic or non-ischemic events. Considering the multiple causes of myocardial injury and treatment consequences there is great clinical need to clarify the underlying reason for cTnT release. We sought to implement acute CMR as a non-invasive imaging method for differential diagnosis of elevated cTnT in chest-pain unit (CPU) patients with non-conclusive symptoms and ECG-changes and a low to intermediate probability for coronary artery disease (CAD).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>CPU patients (n = 29) who had positive cTnT were scanned at 1.5T with a new step-by-step CMR algorithm including cine-, perfusion-, T2-, angiography-and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. For comparison patients also underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography if necessary. CMR was conducted successfully in all patients and detected 93% of cTnT releases of unknown cause, without adverse hemodynamic or arrhythmic events. Acute myocardial infarction was detected in 11, pulmonary embolism in 6, myocarditis in 5, renal disease and cardiomyopathy in 2, storage disorder in 1 patient. In 2 patients CMR was unable to reveal the cause of cTnT elevations. Mean CMR scan-time was 35 ± 8 min. In 4 patients, CMR led to immediate coronary angiography with correct prediction of the infarct related artery.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We implemented a novel CMR algorithm to show the clinical value and practical feasibility of acute CMR in a non-conclusive patient cohort with unclear cTnT elevation. Since this pilot study has shown the feasibility of CMR in CPU patients, further prospective studies are warranted to compare CMR with other imaging modalities.</p