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    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Low-flow ECCO2R conjoined with renal replacement therapy platform to manage pulmonary vascular dysfunction with refractory hypercapnia in ARDS

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    Background: Hypercapnia worsens lung vascular dysfunction during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We tested whether an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) device based on a renal replacement therapy platform (PrismalungÂź) may reduce PaCO2 and alleviate lung vascular dysfunction in ARDS patients with refractory hypercapnia. Methods: We planned to prospectively include 20 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS, pulmonary vascular dysfunction on echocardiography, and PaCO2 ≄ 48 mmHg despite instrumental dead space reduction and the increase in respiratory rate. Hemodynamics, echocardiography, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gases were recorded at 2 (H2), 6 (H6) and 24 (H24) hours as ECCO2R treatment was continued for at least 24 h. Results: Only eight patients were included, and the study was stopped due to worldwide shortage of ECCO2R membranes and the pandemic. Only one patient fulfilled the primary endpoint criterion (decrease in PaCO2 of more than 20 %) at H2, but this objective was achieved in half of patients (n = 4) at H6. The percentage of patients with a PaCO2 value < 48 mmHg increased with time, from 0/8 (0 %) at H0, to 3/8 (37.5 %) at H2 and 4/8 (50 %) at H6 (p = 0.04). There was no major change in hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables with ECCO2R, except for a significant decrease in heart rate. ECCO2R was prematurely discontinued before H24 in five (62.5 %) patients, due to membrane clotting in all cases. Conclusions: This pilot study testing showed a narrow efficacy and high rate of membrane thrombosis with the first version of the system. Improved versions should be tested in future trials. Trial registration: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT03303807, Registered: October 6, 2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03303807