77,306 research outputs found

    Comment on ``Coherent Control of a V-Type Three-Level System in a Single Quantum Dot''

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    This is a Comment on Phys. Rev. Lett., {\bf 95}, 187404 (2005)Comment: 1 page

    Parallel and Distributed Algorithms for the Housing Allocation Problem

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    We give parallel and distributed algorithms for the housing allocation problem. In this problem, there is a set of agents and a set of houses. Each agent has a strict preference list for a subset of houses. We need to find a matching such that some criterion is optimized. One such criterion is Pareto Optimality. A matching is Pareto optimal if no coalition of agents can be strictly better off by exchanging houses among themselves. We also study the housing market problem, a variant of the housing allocation problem, where each agent initially owns a house. In addition to Pareto optimality, we are also interested in finding the core of a housing market. A matching is in the core if there is no coalition of agents that can be better off by breaking away from other agents and switching houses only among themselves. In the first part of this work, we show that computing a Pareto optimal matching of a house allocation is in {\bf CC} and computing the core of a housing market is {\bf CC}-hard. Given a matching, we also show that verifying whether it is in the core can be done in {\bf NC}. We then give an algorithm to show that computing a maximum Pareto optimal matching for the housing allocation problem is in {\bf RNC}^2 and quasi-{\bf NC}^2. In the second part of this work, we present a distributed version of the top trading cycle algorithm for finding the core of a housing market. To that end, we first present two algorithms for finding all the disjoint cycles in a functional graph: a Las Vegas algorithm which terminates in O(logl)O(\log l) rounds with high probability, where ll is the length of the longest cycle, and a deterministic algorithm which terminates in O(lognlogl)O(\log^* n \log l) rounds, where nn is the number of nodes in the graph. Both algorithms work in the synchronous distributed model and use messages of size O(logn)O(\log n)

    Investigation of the existence of city-scale three-dimensional macroscopic fundamental diagrams for bi-modal traffic

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    Recent research has demonstrated that the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) is reliable and practical tool for modeling traffic dynamics and network performance in single-mode (cars only) urban road networks. In this paper, we first extend the modeling of the single-mode MFD to a bi-modal (bus and cars) one. Based on simulated data, we develop a three-dimensional MFD (3D-MFD) relating the accumulation of cars and buses, and the total circulating flow in the network. We propose an exponential function to capture the shape of the 3D-MFD, which shows a good fit to the data. We also propose an elegant estimation for passenger car equivalent of buses (PCU), which has a physical meaning and depends on the bi-modal traffic in the network. Moreover, we analyze a 3D-MFD for passenger network flows and derive its analytical function. Finally, we investigate an MFD for networks with dedicated bus lanes and the relationship between the shape of the MFD and the operational characteristics of buses. The output of this paper is an extended 3D-MFD model that can be used to (i) monitor traffic performance and, (ii) develop various traffic management strategies in bi-modal urban road networks, such as redistribution of urban space among different modes, perimeter control, and bus priority strategies

    Linearizable Replicated State Machines With Lattice Agreement

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    This paper studies the lattice agreement problem in asynchronous systems and explores its application to building a linearizable replicated state machine (RSM). First, we propose an algorithm to solve the lattice agreement problem in O(log f) asynchronous rounds, where f is the number of crash failures that the system can tolerate. This is an exponential improvement over the previous best upper bound of O(f). Second, Faleiro et al have shown in [Faleiro et al. PODC, 2012] that combination of conflict-free data types and lattice agreement protocols can be applied to implement a linearizable RSM. They give a Paxos style lattice agreement protocol, which can be adapted to implement a linearizable RSM and guarantee that a command by a client can be learned in at most O(n) message delays, where n is the number of proposers. Later, Xiong et al in [Xiong et al. DISC, 2018] gave a lattice agreement protocol which improves the O(n) message delay guarantee to O(f). However, neither of the protocols is practical for building a linearizable RSM. Thus, in the second part of the paper, we first give an improved protocol based on the one proposed by Xiong et al. Then, we implement a simple linearizable RSM using our improved protocol and compare our implementation with an open source Java implementation of Paxos. Results show that better performance can be obtained by using lattice agreement based protocols to implement a linearizable RSM compared to traditional consensus based protocols

    Beamforming Optimization for Full-Duplex Wireless-powered MIMO Systems

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    We propose techniques for optimizing transmit beamforming in a full-duplex multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless-powered communication system, which consists of two phases. In the first phase, the wireless-powered mobile station (MS) harvests energy using signals from the base station (BS), whereas in the second phase, both MS and BS communicate to each other in a full-duplex mode. When complete instantaneous channel state information (CSI) is available, the BS beamformer and the time-splitting (TS) parameter of energy harvesting are jointly optimized in order to obtain the BS-MS rate region. The joint optimization problem is non-convex, however, a computationally efficient optimum technique, based upon semidefinite relaxation and line-search, is proposed to solve the problem. A sub-optimum zero-forcing approach is also proposed, in which a closed-form solution of TS parameter is obtained. When only second-order statistics of transmit CSI is available, we propose to maximize the ergodic information rate at the MS, while maintaining the outage probability at the BS below a certain threshold. An upper bound for the outage probability is also derived and an approximate convex optimization framework is proposed for efficiently solving the underlying non-convex problem. Simulations demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methods over the sub-optimum and half-duplex ones.Comment: 14 pages, accepte