15 research outputs found

    Haemodynamic changes in both ROIs.

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    <p>Haemodynamic changes in the left ROI (blue bar) and right ROI (orange bar) for RDSs with 8 disparities for all participants (n = 11). Error bars represent the standard error of the mean across all participants. Statistical analysis indicates that there is a left lateralization of the activation pattern; furthermore, haemodynamic response to an RDS with 0.5° disparity is significantly stronger than to an RDS with 1.1°.</p

    Haemodynamic response and beta values.

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    <p>(a): Comparison of HbO and Hb response to stereopsis. Averaged HbO signals (red solid curve) show larger magnitude and thus better sensitivity. (b): The topography of averaged beta values for 8 disparities from all participants (n = 11). The topography shows that the occipital cortex is spatially correlated with stereoscopic vision and that the activation pattern is associated with eye dominance.</p

    Comparison between different baseline correction methods.

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    <p>Good (a) and bad (b) trial samples after preprocessing of fNIRS data. Solid cyan curves: the time window for RDSs viewing and black screen (28s for each trial). Black curves: subjective assessments and shut-eye rests (13.3s). The averaged response of good (c) and bad (e) trial samples using traditional time-course analysis (zero order baseline corrections). The averaged response of good (d) and bad (f) trial samples using curvilinear fitting baseline corrections.</p

    Illustration of the data processing.

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    <p>(a): a bad trial sample with large background noise; (b): extracted brain activity from the raw data; (c): fitting the data by two normal distribution functions.</p

    The correlation between subjective assessments and fNIRS data at group level (n = 11).

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    <p>The correlation between subjective assessments and fNIRS data at group level (n = 11).</p

    Statistical results of subjective assessments.

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    <p>Correlations between subjective assessments and different binocular disparities (a, b, c, d). The evaluation of sustainability is correlated with the perception of stereopsis (e) and the degree of discomfort (f). Subsequent post-hoc pairwise comparisons (with FDR controlled) reveal that the differences of evaluations are all significant or marginally significant (P<sub>max</sub> = 0.052) among different disparities in (a), (b) and (d). The evaluation of RDS with 0.7° disparity is significantly larger than RDS with 1.1° in (c). *: Significance at the 0.05 level. **: Significance at the 0.01 level.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_Moderate increase of precipitation stimulates CO2 production by regulating soil organic carbon in a saltmarsh.docx

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    Saltmarsh is widely recognized as a blue carbon ecosystem with great carbon storage potential. Yet soil respiration with a major contributor of atmospheric CO2 can offset its carbon sink function. Up to date, mechanisms ruling CO2 emissions from saltmarsh soil remain unclear. In particular, the effect of precipitation on soil CO2 emissions is unclear in coastal wetlands, due the lack of outdoor data in real situations. We conducted a 7-year field manipulation experiment in a saltmarsh in the Yellow River Delta, China. Soil respiration in five treatments (−60%, −40%, +0%, +40%, and + 60% of precipitation) was measured in the field. Topsoils from the last 3 years (2019–2021) were analyzed for CO2 production potential by microcosm experiments. Furthermore, quality and quantity of soil organic carbon and microbial function were tested. Results show that only the moderate precipitation rise of +40% induced a 66.2% increase of CO2 production potential for the microcosm experiments, whereas other data showed a weak impact. Consistently, soil respiration was also found to be strongest at +40%. The CO2 production potential is positively correlated with soil organic carbon, including carbon quantity and quality. But microbial diversity did not show any positive response to precipitation sizes. r-/K-strategy seemed to be a plausible explanation for biological factors. Overall, our finding reveal that a moderate precipitation increase, not decrease or a robust increase, in a saltmarsh is likely to improve soil organic carbon quality and quantity, and bacterial oligotroph:copiotroph ratio, ultimately leading to an enhanced CO2 production.</p
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