39,569 research outputs found

    Performance of wind turbines in a turbulent atmosphere

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    The effect of atmospheric turbulence on the power fluctuations of large wind turbines was studied. The significance of spatial non-uniformities of the wind is emphasized. The turbulent wind with correlation in time and space is simulated on the computer by Shinozukas method. The wind turbulence is modelled according to the Davenport spectrum with an exponential spatial correlation function. The rotor aerodynamics is modelled by simple blade element theory. Comparison of the spectrum of power output signal between 1-D and 3-D turbulence, shows the significant power fluctuations centered around the blade passage frequency

    The Southern Vilnius Photometric System. IV. The E Regions Standard Stars

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    This paper is the fourth in a series on the extension of the Vilnius photometric system to the southern hemisphere. Observations were made of 60 stars in the Harvard Standard E regions to increase a set of standard stars.Comment: 6 pages, TeX, requires 2 macros (baltic2.tex, baltic4.tex) included no figures, to be published in Baltic Astronomy, Vol 6, pp1-6 (1997

    Hybrid A/D converter for 200 deg C operation

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    A 12 bit A/D converter was designed and developed which will operate at 200 C with .05 linearity, 1/accuracy, 350 WSec conversion time, and only 455 mW power consumption. This product also necessitated the development of a unique three metal system in which aluminum wire bonding is done utilizing aluminum bonding pads, gold wire bonding to all gold areas, and employment of a nickel interface between gold and aluminum connections. This system totally eliminates the formation of a intermetallics at the bonding interface which can lead to bond failure. This product represents an advancement in electronics as it proved the operation of integrated circuits at high temperature, as well as providing information about both the electrical and mechanical reliability of hybrid circuits at 200 C

    A study of noise metric and tone correction accuracy

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    Methods currently used to measure human response to aircraft flyover noise were investigated. Response to high level aircraft noise usually experienced outdoors was obtained. Response to aircraft flyover noise typical of indoor exposure was also investigated. It was concluded that current methods for evaluating response to aircraft flyover are more accurate for outdoor noise

    Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

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    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db

    Properties of nonaqueous electrolytes First quarterly report, 20 Jun. - 19 Sep. 1966

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    Solvent purification and water content determined by gas chromatography for nonaqueous electrolyte

    Elastic, Viscous, and Mass Load Effects on Poststroke Muscle Recruitment and Co-contraction During Reaching: A Pilot Study

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    Background: Resistive exercise after stroke can improve strength (force-generating capacity) without increasing spasticity (velocity-dependent hypertonicity). However, the effect of resistive load type on muscle activation and co-contraction after stroke is not clear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of load type (elastic, viscous, or mass) on muscle activation and co-contraction during resisted forward reaching in the paretic and nonparetic arms after stroke. Design: This investigation was a single-session, mixed repeated-measures pilot study. Methods: Twenty participants (10 with hemiplegia and 10 without neurologic involvement) reached forward with each arm against equivalent elastic, viscous, and mass loads. Normalized shoulder and elbow electromyography impulses were analyzed to determine agonist muscle recruitment and agonist-antagonist muscle co-contraction. Results: Muscle activation and co-contraction levels were significantly higher on virtually all outcome measures for the paretic and nonparetic arms of the participants with stroke than for the matched control participants. Only the nonparetic shoulder responded to load type with similar activation levels but variable co-contraction responses relative to those of the control shoulder. Elastic and viscous loads were associated with strong activation; mass and viscous loads were associated with minimal co-contraction. Limitations: A reasonable, but limited, range of loads was available. Conclusions: Motor control deficits were evident in both the paretic and the nonparetic arms after stroke when forward reaching was resisted with viscous, elastic, or mass loads. The paretic arm responded with higher muscle activation and co-contraction levels across all load conditions than the matched control arm. Smaller increases in muscle activation and co-contraction levels that varied with load type were observed in the nonparetic arm. On the basis of the response of the nonparetic arm, this study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that viscous loads elicited strong muscle activation with minimal co-contraction. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether viscous loads are preferable for poststroke resistive exercise programs
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