5,828 research outputs found

    Stabilization of quantum metastable states by dissipation

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    Normally, quantum fluctuations enhance the escape from metastable states in the presence of dissipation. Here we show that dissipation can enhance the stability of a quantum metastable system, consisting of a particle moving in a strongly asymmetric double well potential, interacting with a thermal bath. We find that the escape time from the metastable state has a nonmonotonic behavior versus the system-bath coupling and the temperature, producing a stabilizing effect.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Testing For Financial Contagion Between Developed And Emerging Markets During The 1997 East Asian Crisis

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    In this paper we examine whether during the 1997 East Asian crisis there was any contagion from the four largest economies in the region (Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Malaysia) to a number of developed countries (Japan, UK, Germany and France). Following Forbes and Rigobon (2002), we test for contagion as a significant positive shift in the correlation between asset returns, taking into account heteroscedasticity and endogeneity bias. Furthermore, we improve on earlier empirical studies by carrying out a full sample test of the stability of the system that relies on more plausible (over)identifying restrictions. The estimation results provide some evidence of contagion, in particular from Japan (the major international lender in the region), which drastically cut its credit lines to the other Asian countries in 1997

    Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides

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    We compare a set of experimental lattice temperature profiles measured in a surface-emitting terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with the results of a 2-D anisotropic heat diffusion model. We evaluate the temperature dependence of the cross-plane thermal conductivity (kappaperp) of the active region which is known to be strongly anisotropic due to its superlattice-like nature. Knowledge of kappaperp and its temperature dependence is crucial in order to improve the temperature performance of THz QCLs and this has been used to investigate the longitudinal lattice temperature distribution of the active region and to compare the thermal properties of metal-metal and semi-insulating surface-plasmon THz optical waveguides using a 3-D anisotropic heat diffusion model

    General rules for bosonic bunching in multimode interferometers

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    We perform a comprehensive set of experiments that characterize bosonic bunching of up to 3 photons in interferometers of up to 16 modes. Our experiments verify two rules that govern bosonic bunching. The first rule, obtained recently in [1,2], predicts the average behavior of the bunching probability and is known as the bosonic birthday paradox. The second rule is new, and establishes a n!-factor quantum enhancement for the probability that all n bosons bunch in a single output mode, with respect to the case of distinguishable bosons. Besides its fundamental importance in phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation, bosonic bunching can be exploited in applications such as linear optical quantum computing and quantum-enhanced metrology.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, and supplementary material (4 pages, 1 figure

    Visualization of a DNA-PK/PARP1 complex

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    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) are critical enzymes that reduce genomic damage caused by DNA lesions. They are both activated by DNA strand breaks generated by physiological and environmental factors, and they have been shown to interact. Here, we report in vivo evidence that DNA-PK and PARP1 are equally necessary for rapid repair. We purified a DNA-PK/PARP1 complex loaded on DNA and performed electron microscopy and single particle analysis on its tetrameric and dimer-of-tetramers forms. By comparison with the DNA-PK holoenzyme and fitting crystallographic structures, we see that the PARP1 density is in close contact with the Ku subunit. Crucially, PARP1 binding elicits substantial conformational changes in the DNA-PK synaptic dimer assembly. Taken together, our data support a functional, in-pathway role for DNA-PK and PARP1 in double-strand break (DSB) repair. We also propose a NHEJ model where protein–protein interactions alter substantially the architecture of DNA-PK dimers at DSBs, to trigger subsequent interactions or enzymatic reactions