6,684 research outputs found

    Local and Non-Local Jail Use: An Examination of a Sample of Alaska Community Jail Detainees

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    An earlier version of this report was presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Washington, DC, April 2001.Data collected for the Alaska Community Jails Statewide Research Consortium included neither race nor place of residence. Because of their interest in both racial distribution and the use of the jail by nonresidents, the fifteen member jails provided this information for a random sample of detainees. The sample consisted of 1,687 detainees, more than a third of whom were not from the communities in which they were held. There was considerable variation by facility and much of the variance appears to be related to the nature of the community and its relationship to surrounding villages and to its geographic location in the state.Research supported by Grant No. 98-CE-VX-0014 awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.[Introduction] / Background / The Rural Sample / Conclusion / Bibliograph

    Prison Visiting Policies and Practices [paper]

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    A later version of this paper was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1991). "Prison Visiting Policies and Practices." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 35(3): 263–275 (Fall 1991). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9103500308).Based on empirical evidence that visiting is significantly related to parole success, several authorities have encouraged correctional institutions to maximize visiting opportunities. Previous studies have noted geographical and architectural limits to such maximization. A decade of prison construction should have improved visiting opportunities. This paper reports the results of a national survey of visiting policies and draws comparisons with surveys reported in 1978 and 1954.Abstract / Introduction / The 1987 Survey / Conclusion / Table 1. Schedule of Visiting Hours / Reference

    Discretion, Due Process, and the Prison Discipline Committee

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    A revised version of this paper was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1986). "Discretion, Due Process and the Prison Discipline Committee." Criminal Justice Review 11(2): 37–46 (Fall 1986). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073401688601100207).Prison discipline received considerable attention from both the courts and professional organizations during the decade of the 1970s. It was widely assumed that the due process requirements which resulted from judicial review coupled with the promulgation of model discipline standards and procedures would limit the broad discretionary authority found in the traditional prison disciplinary process. A case study of the activities of one prison discipline committee suggests that these external pressures have had less impact on decision-making than such internal pressures as overcrowding. Due process requirements have not greatly inhibited the exercise of discretion in the prison discipline process.Abstract [Introduction] / Background of the Study / Prison Discipline in Indiana / Case Study of an Indiana Prison Discipline Committee / Discussion / Figures / Notes / References / Cases / Appendix: List of Violation

    A Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

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    This paper is a based on the report A Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska: Phase II Report by N.E. Schafer (Anchorage, AK: Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, May 1998).A data set comprised of all juveniles referred to Alaska youth corrections in the fiscal years 1992–1996 shows disproportionate referral of Alaska Native and African American youth when compared to their proportions in the general population. Minorities also appear more likely than white youth to accumulate multiple referrals. Random samples selected within each racial group are used to seek extra-legal factors which may account for some of the disparity. Information on family and home life, school, personal problems, and the details of each referrals and each referral outcome were extrapolated from the files of the sample which included 39 white youth, 35 Alaska Native youth, and 37 African American youth. Special attention was paid to youth who accumulated multiple referrals.This study was made possible by a gift from Cook Inlet Region, Inc. and was conducted in collaboration with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services.Abstract [Introduction] / Disproportionality Literature / Research on Alaska Natives and the Criminal Justice System / Background of the Study / Research Methodology / Findings / Conclusions / Bibliography / Appendix A: Referrals of Habitual Offenders (5 or more referrals

    Exploring the Link between Visits and Parole Success: A Survey of Prison Visitors [manuscript]

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    This manuscript, as revised, was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1994). "Exploring the Link between Visits and Parole Success: A Survey of Prison Visitors." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 38(1): 17–31 (Spring 1994). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9403800103)An exploratory survey of visitors to two men's prisons finds that the visitors differ in some significant ways from prisoners' families previously described in the literature. The results raise some questions about the correlation that has been established between visits and post-release success and provoke suggestions for in-depth research into visitor/prisoner relationships.Abstract / [Introduction] / Research Method / Survey Results / Prisoners' Wives / Parents and Siblings / Female Friends / Discussion / Conclusion / Reference

    Prison Visiting Policies and Practices [manuscript]

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    A version of this manuscript, as revised, was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1991). "Prison Visiting Policies and Practices." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 35(3): 263–275 (Fall 1991). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9103500308).Based on empirical evidence that visiting is significantly related to parole success, correctional administrators have begun to view family visits as one component of the rehabilitation process. Several authorities have encouraged correctional institutions to maximize visiting opportunities. Previous studies have noted geographical and architectural limits to such maximization. This paper reports the results of a national survey of visiting policies and draws comparisons with surveys reported in 1978 and 1954 to determine the extent to which prisons have increased efforts to make visiting a priority.Abstract / Introduction / Background of the Study / The 1987 Survey / Conclusion / Reference

    Profiles of Prison Visitors

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    A revised version of this paper was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1994). "Exploring the Link between Visits and Parole Success: A Survey of Prison Visitors." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 38(1): 17–31 (Spring 1994). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9403800103)An exploratory survey of visitors to two men's prisons finds that the visitors differ in some significant ways from prisoners' families previously described in the literature. The results raise some questions about the correlation that has been established between visits and post-release success and provoke suggestions for in-depth research into visitor/prisoner relationships.[Introduction] / Background of the Study / Research Method / Survey results / Profiles / Discussion / Conclusion / References / Table

    Disproportionate Minority Processing of Females: A Comparison of Native, Black and White Juveniles

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    An examination of four years of statewide female juvenile referral data showed that Native girls are referred in disproportionate numbers and tend to have lengthier records. Underage drinking was one of the most frequent referral reasons. Because many of the Native females were from rural communities, the disproportionate referrals may be a factor of the smallness of the communities, in which misbehavior is more readily noticed. Examination of a subset of files for girls with multiple referrals showed that the actual behavior was often not particularly grave and that many of the girls with multiple referrals came from very unstable backgrounds.This study was made possible by a gift from Cook Inlet Region, Inc. and was conducted in collaboration with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services.Abstract / [Introduction] / Research Methodology / Girls in the Larger Data Set / Conclusion / Bibliography / Appendix: Referrals of Female Habitual Offenders (5 or more referrals

    Visiting Rules and Regulations: A Preliminary Study

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    A revised version of this paper was published as: Schafer, N.E. (1989). "Prison Visiting: Is It Time to Review the Rules?" Federal Probation 53(4): 25–30 (Dec 1989). (http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/fedpro53&div=57&id=&page=; )Visiting rules and regulations from 71 long-term adult correctional facilities from 31 states were collected for review. The rules are divided into five areas: visitor application, visitor processing, contraband, conduct, and dress codes. They are reviewed in the light of recent standards which stress the importance of encouraging visits. Suggestions and recommendations for change are included.Abstract / [Introduction] / The Visiting Rules / Becoming a Visitor / Visitor Processing / Contraband / Conduct / Dress Codes / Reference

    Protective Custody Holds in Alaska's Community Jails

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    A presentation of data from fifteen Alaska community jails (Barrow, Cordova, Craig, Dillingham, Haines, Homer, Bristol Bay Borough, Kodiak, Kotzebue, Petersburg, Seward, Sitka, Unalaska, Valdez and Wrangell) regarding protective custody holds β€” essentially detention of public inebriates. The report describes the jails and the procedures for such holds under state statute and presents figures on protective custody holds: number per jail, number by season, number by time of day, ages of those held, duration of hold.National Institute of Justice. Grant No. 98-CE-VX-0014 National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, United States Department of Justice.Foreword / Introduction / Outcomes / Conclusio
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