528 research outputs found

    Anomalous Flux Quantization in the Spin-Imbalanced Attractive Hubbard Ring

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    We investigate the one-dimensional Hubbard ring with attractive interaction in the presence of imbalanced spin populations by using the exact diagonalization method. The singlet pairing correlation function is found to show spatial oscillations with power-law decay as expected in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. In the strong coupling regime, the system shows an anomalous flux quantization of period h=4e, half of the superconducting flux quantum of h=2e, as recently predicted by mean-field analysis, together with various flux quanta smaller than h=4e. Notably, the observed flux quanta are determined by the difference between the system size NL and electron number N_e as h=(N_L-N_e)e.Comment: 6 pages, 8 figure

    Risk-Constrained Dynamic Programming for Optimal Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

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    A chance-constrained dynamic programming algorithm was developed that is capable of making optimal sequential decisions within a user-specified risk bound. This work handles stochastic uncertainties over multiple stages in the CEMAT (Combined EDL-Mobility Analyses Tool) framework. It was demonstrated by a simulation of Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) using real landscape data obtained from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Although standard dynamic programming (DP) provides a general framework for optimal sequential decisionmaking under uncertainty, it typically achieves risk aversion by imposing an arbitrary penalty on failure states. Such a penalty-based approach cannot explicitly bound the probability of mission failure. A key idea behind the new approach is called risk allocation, which decomposes a joint chance constraint into a set of individual chance constraints and distributes risk over them. The joint chance constraint was reformulated into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of an indicator function, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the chance-constraint optimization problem can be turned into an unconstrained optimization over a Lagrangian, which can be solved efficiently using a standard DP approach