61 research outputs found

    Metrics for matrix-valued measures via test functions

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    It is perhaps not widely recognized that certain common notions of distance between probability measures have an alternative dual interpretation which compares corresponding functionals against suitable families of test functions. This dual viewpoint extends in a straightforward manner to suggest metrics between matrix-valued measures. Our main interest has been in developing weakly-continuous metrics that are suitable for comparing matrix-valued power spectral density functions. To this end, and following the suggested recipe of utilizing suitable families of test functions, we develop a weakly-continuous metric that is analogous to the Wasserstein metric and applies to matrix-valued densities. We use a numerical example to compare this metric to certain standard alternatives including a different version of a matricial Wasserstein metric developed earlier

    Minimum-entropy causal inference and its application in brain network analysis

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    Identification of the causal relationship between multivariate time series is a ubiquitous problem in data science. Granger causality measure (GCM) and conditional Granger causality measure (cGCM) are widely used statistical methods for causal inference and effective connectivity analysis in neuroimaging research. Both GCM and cGCM have frequency-domain formulations that are developed based on a heuristic algorithm for matrix decompositions. The goal of this work is to generalize GCM and cGCM measures and their frequency-domain formulations by using a theoretic framework for minimum entropy (ME) estimation. The proposed ME-estimation method extends the classical theory of minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimation for stochastic processes. It provides three formulations of cGCM that include Geweke's original time-domain cGCM as a special case. But all three frequency-domain formulations of cGCM are different from previous methods. Experimental results based on simulations have shown that one of the proposed frequency-domain cGCM has enhanced sensitivity and specificity in detecting network connections compared to other methods. In an example based on in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging, the proposed frequency-domain measure cGCM can significantly enhance the consistency between the structural and effective connectivity of human brain networks

    Geometric methods for estimation of structured covariances

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    We consider problems of estimation of structured covariance matrices, and in particular of matrices with a Toeplitz structure. We follow a geometric viewpoint that is based on some suitable notion of distance. To this end, we overview and compare several alternatives metrics and divergence measures. We advocate a specific one which represents the Wasserstein distance between the corresponding Gaussians distributions and show that it coincides with the so-called Bures/Hellinger distance between covariance matrices as well. Most importantly, besides the physically appealing interpretation, computation of the metric requires solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI). As a consequence, computations scale nicely for problems involving large covariance matrices, and linear prior constraints on the covariance structure are easy to handle. We compare this transportation/Bures/Hellinger metric with the maximum likelihood and the Burg methods as to their performance with regard to estimation of power spectra with spectral lines on a representative case study from the literature.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    Matrix-valued Monge-Kantorovich Optimal Mass Transport

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    We formulate an optimal transport problem for matrix-valued density functions. This is pertinent in the spectral analysis of multivariable time-series. The "mass" represents energy at various frequencies whereas, in addition to a usual transportation cost across frequencies, a cost of rotation is also taken into account. We show that it is natural to seek the transportation plan in the tensor product of the spaces for the two matrix-valued marginals. In contrast to the classical Monge-Kantorovich setting, the transportation plan is no longer supported on a thin zero-measure set.Comment: 11 page

    Convex Clustering via Optimal Mass Transport

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    We consider approximating distributions within the framework of optimal mass transport and specialize to the problem of clustering data sets. Distances between distributions are measured in the Wasserstein metric. The main problem we consider is that of approximating sample distributions by ones with sparse support. This provides a new viewpoint to clustering. We propose different relaxations of a cardinality function which penalizes the size of the support set. We establish that a certain relaxation provides the tightest convex lower approximation to the cardinality penalty. We compare the performance of alternative relaxations on a numerical study on clustering.Comment: 12 pages, 12 figure

    Matricial Wasserstein-1 Distance

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    In this note, we propose an extension of the Wasserstein 1-metric (W1W_1) for matrix probability densities, matrix-valued density measures, and an unbalanced interpretation of mass transport. The key is using duality theory, in particular, a "dual of the dual" formulation of W1W_1. This matrix analogue of the Earth Mover's Distance has several attractive features including ease of computation.Comment: 8 page
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