393 research outputs found

    Large-Scale Plasma Polymer Coating on Heat Exchanger Fins for Improving the Wettability

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    This research presents the results of the recently developed large-scale hydrophilic polymer coating by plasma polymerization, optimum plasma zone (OPZ) process. The excellent hydrophilicity of heat exchanger fin surface could give good effects to efficient drainage of condensate water as well as heat transfer performance. The hydrophilicity of layer treated by large-scale OPZ system is excellent irrespective of line speed from 0.6 m/min to 2.4 m/min. The good lateral uniformity of the hydrophilicity could be acquired in large scale OPZ treatment. The application of OPZ technique to the heat exchanger could enhance the efficiency of heat transfer, resulting from decrease of pressure drop. Due to long-term durability of hydrophilicity, the heat transfer performance improved by OPZ process cannot be deteriorated with operation cycle

    International comparison of the factors influencing reimbursement of targeted anti-cancer drugs

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.Background: Reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries even though they rely on the same clinical evidence. We compared the pattern of publicly funded drug programs and analyzed major factors influencing the differences. Methods: We investigated reimbursement policies for 19 indications with targeted anti-cancer drugs that are used variably across ten countries. The available incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) data were retrieved for each indication. Based on the comparison between actual reimbursement decisions and the ICERs, we formulated a reimbursement adequacy index (RAI): calculating the proportion of cost-effective decisions, either reimbursement of cost-effective indications or non-reimbursement of cost-ineffective indications, out of the total number of indications for each country. The relationship between RAI and other indices were analyzed, including governmental dependency on health technology assessment, as well as other parameters for health expenditure. All the data used in this study were gathered from sources publicly available online. Results: Japan and France were the most likely to reimburse indications (16/19), whereas Sweden and the United Kingdom were the least likely to reimburse them (5/19 and 6/19, respectively). Indications with high cost-effectiveness values were more likely to be reimbursed (ρ = −0.68, P = 0.001). The three countries with high RAI scores each had a healthcare system that was financed by general taxation. Conclusions: Although reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries, we found a strong correlation of reimbursements for those indications with lower ICERs. Countries with healthcare systems financed by general taxation demonstrated greater cost-effectiveness as evidenced by reimbursement decisions of anti-cancer drugs.Peer Reviewe

    Complete response to FOLFOX4 therapy in a patient with advanced urothelial cancer: a case report

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    No standard has been established for salvage therapy in gemcitabine refractory advanced urothelial cancer. We report the complete response to FOLFOX4 therapy of a metastatic urothelial cancer patient, for whom adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin combination chemotherapy had failed. A 54-year-old male patient with urothelial cancer (transitional cell carcinoma) in the right kidney underwent three rounds of adjuvant gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy after extensive radical nephrectomy. However, he had new liver, lung metastases and synchronous two separate primary colon cancer. The lung metastasis lesion was confirmed as a metastatic urothelial cancer via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB). Liver and lung metastasis lesions disappeared after the 4th cycle of FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. In addition, colon cancer also disappeared after the 8th cycle of FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. The patient was still showing a complete response after 4 months. Clinical trials using the FOLFOX regimen as salvage therapy for gemcitabine-refractory advanced urothelial cancer are warranted

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: ecology, microbiology, pathogenesis, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms

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    The incidence and prevalence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing worldwide. Environmental sources of NTM include water, soil, and dust, and the acquisition of NTM infection depends on sufficient environmental exposure, host susceptibility factors such as immunocompromised status or cystic fibrosis, and mycobacterial virulence factors. The development of molecular methods has allowed the characterization of new species and the identification of NTM to the precise species and subspecies levels. Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus complex, and M. kansasii are the most frequently identified organisms causing lung disease. Susceptibility to disease is incompletely understood, and thus, it is unclear what preventative measures may be effective. Additionally, NTM have natural and acquired resistance mechanisms to several antibiotics. Better understanding of the ecology, pathogenesis, and mycobacterial genetics and antibiotic resistance mechanisms is essential for preventing NTM infections and developing new regimens for effective treatment

    Safety Evaluation of Yukmijihwang-tang: Assessment of Acute and Subchronic Toxicity in Rats

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    Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ; Liu wei di huang tang (China), Rokumigan (Japan)) has been used in the treatment of diseases including renal disorder, cognitive vitality, and diabetes mellitus. However, there is very little information regarding the toxicity of YMJ to give an assurance of safety for clinical treatment. To provide safety information for YMJ, we evaluated its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in rats. The single-dose toxicity of YMJ was examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with YMJ extract orally at 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body weight. After a single administration, clinical signs were observed every day for two weeks, and body weights were measured five times, including an initial measurement on day 1 (the day of administration). In the sub-chronic oral toxicity study, YMJ was administered to rats at 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, ophthalmologic findings, urinalysis, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological examination were monitored during the study period. We found no mortality and no abnormalities in clinical signs, body weights, and necropsy findings for any of the animals in the acute and sub-chronic studies following oral administration in the rat at up to 2000 mg/kg/day YMJ. YMJ may not have any single-dose toxicity; the LD50 of YMJ was over 2000 mg/kg, and it is safe for rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was considered to be 2000 mg/kg/day

    The effects of logotherapy on meaning in life and quality of life of late adolescents with terminal cancer

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    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a logotherapy program entitled 'Finding meaning in my life' for adolescents with terminal cancer. Methods: A nonequivalent control group, non-synchronized design was conducted with a convenience sample of 44 late adolescents with terminal cancer. The experimental group (n=22) participated in the 'Finding meaning in my life' program which consisted of five-day sessions for one week. The control group (n=22) received the usual nursing care. The effects were measured using adolescent meaning in life (AMIL), and quality of life (QOL) scales. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and t-test using SPSS/PC 17.0 program. Results: There were significant differences in AMIL (t=3.36, p<.05) and QOL (t=2.67, p<.05) between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Logotherapy is effective in improving the meaning in life and quality of life of late adolescents with terminal cancer, and can be used to prevent existential distress
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