5,075 research outputs found

    DNA methylation of ESR-1 and N-33 in colorectal mucosa of patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

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    Introduction: Epigenetic marking such as DNA methylation influence gene transcription and chromosomal stability and may also be affected by environmental exposures. Few studies exist on alteration in DNA methylation profiles (genomic and gene specific methylation) in patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and none assessing its relationship with lifestyle exposures. Aims & Methods: To assess genomic methylation and promoter methylation of the ESR-1 (oestrogen receptor - 1) and N-33 (tumour suppressor candidate-3) genes in the macroscopically normal mucosa of UC patients as well as to investigate effects of anthropometric and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation. Sixty eight subjects were recruited (24 UC and 44 age and sex matched controls). Colorectal mucosal biopsies were obtained and DNA was extracted. Genomic DNA methylation was quantified using the tritium-labelled cytosine extension assay (3[H] dCTP) whilst gene specific methylation was quantified using the COBRA method. Results: The methylation level of both ESR-1 and N-33 genes were significantly higher in UC subjects compared with controls (7.9% vs 5.9%; p = 0.015 and 66% vs 9.3%; p < 0.001 respectively). There was no detectable difference in global DNA methylation between patients with UC and age and sex matched controls. No associations between indices of DNA methylation and anthropometric measures or smoking patterns were detected. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown increased methylation in the promoter regions of the putative tumour suppressor gene N-33 in macroscopically normal mucosa of patients with UC. In addition, we have confirmed that methylation of ESR-1 promoter is higher in UC patients compared with age and sex matched controls. These findings suggests that, inactivation through methylation of the putative tumour suppressor genes N-33 and ESR-1, may not be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis in UC

    A Storm in a "T" Cup

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    We revisit the process of transversification and agglomeration of particle momenta that are often performed in analyses at hadron colliders, and show that many of the existing mass-measurement variables proposed for hadron colliders are far more closely related to each other than is widely appreciated, and indeed can all be viewed as a common mass bound specialized for a variety of purposes.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figures, presented by K.C. Kong at the 19th Particles and Nuclei International Conference, PANIC 2011, MIT, Cambridge, MA (July 24-29, 2011

    Educational aspirations in inner city schools

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    The research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils’ educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their Local Authority because of poor pupil attendance, below average examination results and low rates of continuing in full-time education after the age of 16. Schools were all ethnically mixed and co-educational. Over 800 pupils aged 12-14 completed a questionnaire assessing pupils’ experience of home, school and their peers. A sub-sample of 48 pupils selected by teachers to reflect ethnicity and ability levels in individual schools also participated in detailed focus group interviews. There were no significant differences in aspirations by gender or year group, but differences between ethnic groups were marked. Black African, Asian Other and Pakistani groups had significantly higher educational aspirations than the White British group, who had the lowest aspirations. The results suggest the high aspirations of Black African, Asian Other and Pakistani pupils are mediated through strong academic self-concept, positive peer support, a commitment to schooling and high educational aspirations in the home. They also suggest that low educational aspirations may have different mediating influences in different ethnic groups. The low aspirations of White British pupils seem to relate most strongly to poor academic self-concept and low educational aspirations in the home, while for Black Caribbean pupils disaffection, negative peers and low commitment to schooling appear more relevant. Interviews with pupils corroborated the above findings and further illuminated the factors students described as important in their educational aspirations. The results are discussed in relation to theories of aspiration which stress its nature as a cultural capacity

    Soluble E-Cadherin: An Early Marker of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis

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    Background/Aims. At present, there is no simple test for predicting severity in acute pancreatitis. We investigated the use of an assay of soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin). Methods. Concentrations of sE-cadherin, from 19 patients with mild acute pancreatitis, 7 patients with severe acute pancreatitis, 11 patients with other acute gastrointestinal pathologies, and 12 healthy subjects were measured using a commercially available sandwich ELISA kit based on two monoclonal antibodies specific to the extracellular fragment of human E-cadherin. Measurements were made at 12 hours or less from onset of pain and also at 24 and 48 hours after onset of pain. Results. Mean (standard deviation) concentration of sE-cadherin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis at <12 hours was 17780 ng/mL (7853), significantly higher than that of healthy volunteers 5180 ng/mL (1350), P = .0039, patients with other gastrointestinal pathologies 7358 ng/mL (6655), P = .0073, and also significantly higher than that of patients with mild pancreatitis, 7332 ng/mL (2843), P = .0019. Discussion. Serum sE-cadherin could be an early (within 12 hours) objective marker of severity in acute pancreatitis. This molecule warrants further investigation in the form of a large multicentre trial

    Guide to transverse projections and mass-constraining variables

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    This paper seeks to demonstrate that many of the existing mass-measurement variables proposed for hadron colliders (mT, mEff, mT2, missing pT, hT, rootsHatMin, etc.) are far more closely related to each other than is widely appreciated, and indeed can all be viewed as a common mass bound specialized for a variety of purposes. A consequence of this is that one may understand better the strengths and weaknesses of each variable, and the circumstances in which each can be used to best effect. In order to achieve this, we find it necessary first to revisit the seemingly empty and infertile wilderness populated by the subscript "T" (as in pT) in order to remind ourselves what this process of transversification actually means. We note that, far from being simple, transversification can mean quite different things to different people. Those readers who manage to battle through the barrage of transverse notation distinguishing mass-preserving projections from velocity preserving projections, and `early projection' from `late projection', will find their efforts rewarded towards the end of the paper with (i) a better understanding of how collider mass variables fit together, (ii) an appreciation of how these variables could be generalized to search for things more complicated than supersymmetry, (iii) will depart with an aversion to thoughtless or naive use of the so-called `transverse' methods of any of the popular computer Lorentz-vector libraries, and (iv) will take care in their subsequent papers to be explicit about which of the 61 identified variants of the `transverse mass' they are employing.Comment: 47 pages, 15 figures. v2: Title change for journal, and minor typographical correction